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Saint Augustine, Northeast Florida
Going public with archaeology for outreach, assistance to local governments, and service to the citizens and state of Florida. Visit our website at: http://flpublicarchaeology.org/nerc/
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Archive for May 2011

Civic Tourism and Archaeology

Last week at the Florida Anthropological Society in Orlando, we presented a paper on our Archaeology: It's Out There program.  What the public who attended our "Out There" events may not have realized was there was method to our madness, very much guided by Civic Tourism.  This blog post will review some of the method and theory behind Civic Tourism, discuss how it can apply to archaeology and our work at FPAN, and some lessons we've learned or would like to improve on for the next round.



First off, Civic Tourism is close kin to cultural heritage tourism.  While heritage tourism focuses more on bringing visitors to sites of historical significance, civic tourism focuses more on the reciprocal relationship between the tourism industry and the residential community.  What I really took away from reading the Civic Tourism book was that good places to live are good places to visit and vice versa.  The definition can be found on the Civic Tourism website

To reframe tourism’s purpose, from an end to a means—that is, from a market-driven growth goal to a tool that can help the public preserve and enhance what they love about their place, while revitalizing the local economy. 

On paper this can sound a little dry, but in reality this approach can be a lot of fun!  For example, in Ft. Collins we checked out bikes from the free bike library in Old Town, rode along trails past the Poudre River, over to the Lindell Mill, finishing at the O'Dell Brewery.  The tour included cultural, historical, and environmental interpretive themes in telling the story of Ft. Collins as a place.



Visit to historic Lindell Mill, Ranchway Feeds.


Supporting local businesses!








What resonated for me when I attended the Civic Tourism conference last summer and read Dan Shilling's Civic Tourism: The Poetry and Politics of Place, were the following points:

1.  In crafting a story of place you should integrate cultural heritage with the natural and built environment.  If done properly, the benefits therefore should be economic, social, and environmental.  Being mindful of environmental impacts is imperative to archaeologists and one reason we tend to clash with tourism.  We have to think of sites in terms of sustainability- at what point can people "love" the site to death, over visit, or cause disturbance.  Civic tourism then is one way to invite the public while promoting responsible visitation.
2.  Another tenant of Civic Tourism that resonated with me as a public archaeologist is that "more is not better, better is better."  Our "Archaeology: It's Out There" did not render our highest participant levels, but certainly the quality of event was raised.

3.  Finally, I took to heart the departing message of the book, that the hardest part of developing civic tourism is not the promotion and marketing, but developing content on authentic stories.  Archaeologists can really help in this regard.  By mining the state files and putting together historical contexts that take into account deep time, environment, and settlement, we can provide authentic content.  (A constant battle we face in promoting tourism in St. Augustine.)





Source: Shilling Civic Tourism p. 87



Florida Archaeology Month provided a perfect opportunity to take these new learnings from Civic Tourism and apply them to our month long celebration. The theme of FAM 2011 was Native People, Native Plants. What a perfect platform to integrate the cultural, historical, and environmental!




One inadvertent impact was the deliberation we saw taking place among the visitors.  It recalled notes I'd taken from an Instruction and Design course I took from Linda Levstik at University of Kentucky.  I pulled from the shelf my Barton and Levstik Teaching History for the Common Good  and found this excerpt applied to what we were seeing in the field.  The authors state that: Purpose of education is to prepare students to participate in a pluralistic democracy. 

According to Barton and Levstik this is best achieved by taking a Humanistic approach to:  
  1. Promote reasoned judgment: evaluate causes and consequences of historical actions.
  2. Promotes expanded view of humanity. Thinking of people different than ourselves.
  3. Deliberation over the common good. Chance to discuss the justice of past events or social arrangements, as well as justice of their legacy.
Source: Barton and Levstik Teaching History for the Common Good : 35-37


In the end we achieved strategic goals as we explored new partnerships, found new audiences, integrated social media, encouraged deliberation, and got our foot in the door for Civic Tourism opportunities in our region. 

But we're not done yet.  For the next round we've learned:

We should not attempt to do these all in the same month:) 
While its fun to get in the spirit of FAM, the tours take a lot of time to set up and coordinate.  The events would be better served if we limited it to one a month over a year. 

We recognize providing authentic content is our greatest contribution to the Civic Tourism process. 
We provide authenticity by basing interpretation on archaeologically discovered points. 

In addition to providing content, we also learned to encourage deliberation. 
It becomes a natural activity at these kind of site visits.  Getting on and off the bikes in multiple pairings lends itself easily to people discussing points from different perspectives. 

We need to think broadly about environmental and built environmental partners. 
It wasn't until working on the conclusion of the FAS paper that it hit me, all the partners we left out to bring the Civic Tourism piece full circle.  We should have taken the Tolomato Cemetery visitors over to the Florida Cafe, a local food venue just across the street.  When we were at Mala Compra, we should have biked from the State Park to the County Park, then on to JT's Fish shack.  To provide true economic benefit, we need to be sure our visitors are investing in the community (buying lunch, spending money at local venues). 

For more images check our Facebook gallery or see some highlights below.





  
If you made it this far, you deserve a prize! Good reading!
 Sarah Miller semiller@flagler.edu

Acknowledgements
Many thanks to the staff and volunteers of the Northeast Regional Center: Amber Grafft-Weiss, Sarah Bennett, Robbie Moore, Toni Wallace, Jennifer Knutson, Lisa McIntire, Flagler College Archaeology Club

And thank you to our many, many partners in pulling off another FAM success!
Partners:
Diana Eissing and GTM Preserve
Chris Newman
Shorty Robbins, Tera Meeks, and JaxParks
Albert Hadeed, George Hanns and Flagler County Board of Commissioners
Greg Smith and Marsha Chance
Alfred Bea and Ravine Gardens State Park
John Stavely and Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park
Carl Halbirt and City Archaeology
Steven Shomo, Syner-qi
Ann Stodola, Barbara Beyerl, and Camp Chowenwaw
Elizabeth Gessner and the Tolomato Cemetery Preservation Association
Julie Scofield Dot Moore, Volusia County Parks and Rec
Keith Ashley, Robert Thunen and students of UNF
Susan Mowery, Jennifer and Michael Harrison
City of Fernandina Beach
Michele Williams, SAAA and Flagler College
Marty Healey, LAMP and St. Augustine Lighthouse

"What Is It???" Wednesday

This week's artifact was captured off our Archaeology Off the Beaten Path map.  We distribute the map at regional events, at the Northeast Regional FPAN Center, and at various Visitor Information Centers.  Not many people choose to download the map, but it is available for free on our website at the following link: http://flpublicarchaeology.org/nerc/documents/ArchyMap2010.pdf




This artifact is curated with Florida's Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida.  It is about the size of a quarter and made out of glass.  The story behind this artifact is one any tween can appreciate--or any specialist in Spanish Colonial material culture. 

Bonus points if you can tell me what site in St. Augustine it came from!  I actually need to go look this up in Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean, 15000-1800 myself.  Have two good guesses, but I'll check to be sure...

Click on map to download PDF.


Explored a site from the map? Send us pictures!!!

Last Week's Answer

No one guessed, though one of the participants chimed in (Adam).  This was Flagler College's "Ruins in the Dunes" assignment from Eric Giles' Archaeology class.  Students had to reconstruct monumental architecture in the sand, give a presentation, and be ready and open for public visitors.  The photo in question with Legos to boot is Florida's Big Mound Key, complete with mounds, burials, alligator, and outline of the island.


Sun and Moon Maya Temples.

Easter Island Moai.

Legos represent in situ burials at Big Mound Key.

Big Mound Key!

Alligator in the moat.

American Indian Tattoo Images from the Southeast and Beyond


Timucuan Man of Florida, John White Painting, 1585
(after LeMoyne, 1564)

Timucuan Woman of Florida, John White Painting, 1585 (after LeMoyne, 1564)

Modifying the human body with permanent marks has been around at least 5000 years, the age of the tattooed Ice Man recently discovered in a melting glacier on the Swiss/Italian border.  Egyptian mummies have tattoos preserved on their mummified skin.

Christopher Columbus
The first written description of what may be tattooing in the Americas was reported by Columbus's crew members on his first voyages to the New World.  Dr. Diego Alverez Chanca, a physician on Columbus's second voyage, noted in a letter, that the Caribbean Indians painted themselves with sharpened reeds.  Oviedo, the first historian of Spanish Florida who wrote in the 16th century, asserted that tattooing was practiced everywhere in New Spain using flint razors and pitch pine. 




Early explorers along the East Coast of North America noted the incidence of body decoration almost everywhere.  DeSoto's chroniclers reported it on their travels through the Southeast in 1526.  Soldiers, sailors and an artist/cartographer with the French Hugeunots who built Fort Caroline in 1564, wrote about tattooing among the Timucua Indians of Northeast Florida. 


Outina Consults a Sorcerer, DeBry Engraving of Timucua, 1591 (after LeMoyne, 1564)
The first published artististic depiction of tattooed American Indians was published in 1591 by Theodore DeBry, a Dutch engraver.  He portrayed the Timucua Indians of Florida and the Algonquians of Virginia (later to become North Carolina) as tattooed.  His Florida engravings were thought to be based on paintings by the French Hugeunot cartographer, Jacques Le Moyne, and his Virginia engravings were proven to be based on the watercolors of John White, an Englishman with the Roanoke Voyages. 


Saturina Goes to War, DeBry Engraving of Timucua, 1591 (after LeMoyne, 1564)


The King and Queen Take a Walk, DeBry Engraving of Timucua, 1591 (after LeMoyne, 1564)
Le Moyne's original paintings were lost but White's watercolors have survived.  White's paintings are the earliest artistic representations of Southeastern American Indians and many depict body decoration.  And the captions  clearly report that some of the markings were permanent.

One of the Wives of Wyngyno, John White Painting of Algonquian Indians of Virginia (later North Carolina), 1585



The Wife of the Chief of Pomeioc with her Daughter, John White Painting of Algonquian Indians, 1585 
Indian in War Paint, John White Painting of Algonquian Indians, 1585  


A Great Lord of Virginia, DeBry Engraving, 1591 (after White, 1585)
The Marks of the Chief Men of Virginia, DeBry Engraving, 1591 (after White, 1585)













As noted above, the use of painting and tattooing by American Indians was widespread at the time of first European contact and was reported by the explorers of the15th, 16th and 17th centuries.  In the 18th century, soldiers, traders, missionaries and settlers frequently reported and depicted the unusual and extensive body decoration of the American Indians. 
The Georgia Indians in Their Natural Habitat, PhilipVon Reck Painting, 1736

Mohawk Chief, Verelst Painting , 1710

Tomochichi, King of the Yamachraw and his Son, Verelst Painting, 1734 




















In the 19th century, the U.S. government commissioned portraits of Indian leaders who came to Washington to negotiate treaties.  Although most of these Indian leaders had adopted European dress, their portraits show that facial decoration persisted through the 19th century.
Yoholo-Micco, a Creek Chief, Charles Bird  King Painting, 1826
 

Straight Man, a Distinguishwed Shawnee Warrior, George Catlin Painting, 1830
Traveling artists such as George Catlin document that in the 19th century, Indians of the Midwest and West still practiced body decoration.
A Choctaw Ball Player, George Catlin Painting, 1834



















Weetarasharo, Head Chief of the Wichita, George Catlin Painting, 1834

Illinois Warriors and Dancer, Alexander DeBatz Painting, 1732

In pre-contact times, before Europeans "discovered" America, American Indians created human figural art in engraved shell, embossed copper, wood and clay figurines.  Many of these human figural artifacts uncovered archaeologically, depict body decoration.  It is difficult to determine if these depictions represented painting or tattooing of the body but some of the designs are very similar to tattooing documented in historic times.

Engraved Shell Cup, Spiro Site, Spiro Oklahoma
Rubbing of Engraved Shell Cup, Spiro Site, Spiro, Oklahoma
Engraved Shell Mask with weeping eye decoration, Little Egypt Site, Murray County, Georgia

Repousse Copper Profile Cutout with forked eye decoration, Spiro, Oklahoma

Drawing of Repousse Copper Birdman Plate, Burial 7, Leon County, Florida 

Wooden Masks, Key Marco Site, Marco Island, Florida
Human Head Effigy Vessel, Blythville, Arkansas




Two hunchback human figural vessels with face and body decoration,
Nodena Phase,
a late pre-contact Mississippean Culture, Campbell Site, Pemiscot County, Missouri and Mississippi County, Arkansas 


Yuchi Face Painting, Chief Society and Warrior Society, Frank G. Speck drawing from his ethnographic reseach, 1909
The most recent source of information on American Indian body decoration is found in ethnographic studies with Indian informants. This type of study undertaken in the late19th and 20th centuries, served primarily to document the loss of the native Indian cultural traditions including body decoration, with acculturation.

Today, tattooing has experienced a revival among all of American society including Native Americans. Some Native Americans today are using the same literary, artistic and archaeological sources cited above to revive their ancient traditions including the widespread tradition of decorating the body with permanent marks.



Hand-across-mouth design, historic Omaha warrior and prehistoric hawkman embossed copper plate drawing from Dunklin County, Missouri

Poor Wolf, Hidatsa Man with Tattoo, Frederick N. Wilson painting, 20th century




















Photographic citations listed in:   Antoinette B. Wallace, "Southeastern American Indian Body Decoration:  Forms and Functions"  A Masters Thesis, Harvard University, 1993.

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