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Saint Augustine, Northeast Florida
Going public with archaeology for outreach, assistance to local governments, and service to the citizens and state of Florida. Visit our website at: http://flpublicarchaeology.org/nerc/
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Meet Rachael Kangas, our new Outreach Assistant!

Sweat on my brow, digging in the part of our back yard that just wouldn't grow grass, as a kid I would tediously bury and uncover toy cars and rocks; science at its finest. Growing up in rural Ohio, I fell in love with archaeology. Florida has been my home for the past 11 years now and I don't think I could survive a real winter anymore. I earned my AA degree from Seminole State College, my BA from Rollins College (go Tars!), and currently, I am focusing my efforts at the University of Central Florida as a Master's student with an emphasis on Maya archaeology. I've completed my Maya Studies Certificate from UCF and am currently finishing my thesis work on a structure from a site in Belize.

2015 Field season at Caracol, Belize. Excavating an ancient Maya tomb.

I've participated in field work in the U.S., Bolivia, and Belize, having the honor of digging and analyzing architecture, burials, ceramics, lithics, and many other artifact classes. I've also used my SCUBA certification to dive 2 Florida shipwrecks with FPAN's HADS workshop, as well as a few of Florida's amazing springs and rivers. Due to our state's number of submerged cultural resources, I am excited to use my skills both on land and in the water to help visitors and residents understand and protect these non-renewable treasures.

As I begin working for FPAN I have a lot of plans, which are constantly evolving. My archaeology background means I can talk and teach about many archaeological methods and theories, but I also have a few specific areas I'm working on. Currently, I am developing my knowledge of Florida ceramics and look forward to teaching the public about analyzing ancient pottery, and leading some experimental archaeology workshops to teach about building and firing techniques. Further, while at UCF I learned a great deal about archaeological drawing, a crucial and often under appreciated skill. I hope to teach some hands-on classes with the public to not only discuss drawing's vital role in archaeology, but also to share my passion with others!

FPAN's Superheroes Of Time at the 

Beyond "dirt" archaeology, I have experience in GIS and GPR and will be working with my colleague in the East Central Region to learn more about these technologies and the science behind them. As FPAN East Central works closely with community partners to record, interpret, and spread awareness of the rich prehistory of Florida, I plan to put all of my skills to work to meet these goals.

Overall, I plan to dig, dive, teach, engage, analyze, draw, speak, and do whatever else is necessary to help FPAN in our mission to promote and facilitate the conservation, study and public understanding of Florida's archaeological heritage!

Celebrating the 4th...with the Revolutionary War in Florida

There's lots of ways to celebrate the 4th of July...
 Grill out!
Apalachicola, 1952. Photo Credit: State Archives of Florida.
 Compete in a watermelon-eating competition.
1968. Photo Credit: State Archives of Florida
  Enjoy a parade.
DeLand, 1884. Photo Credit: State Archives of Florida.
Enter a beauty pageant.
Daytona Beach, 1952. Photo Credit: State Archives of Florida
Put on a show.
Silver Lake, 1957. Photo Credit: State Archives of Florida.
 Or...watch some fireworks, of course!
Tallahassee, 1985. Photo Credit: State Archives of Florida.

It's also a nice time to think about that part of history. When I lived in Boston, it was hard to find a spot that didn't have ties to the Revolutionary War. But in Florida, these places are a little harder to find. However, there's three here in Northeast Florida!

Battle of Thomas Creek
When the war began, East and West Florida were British colonies, handed over after the French-Indian (or Seven Years') War. American troops tried three times to invade East Florida, the second on May 17, 1777, around Thomas Creek in present-day Jacksonville. (The first attempt was in 1776 and fell apart before it even began.)

Georgia militiamen were supposed to meet troops from the Continental Army near Cow Ford, as Jacksonville was known as then. However, when the Army was delayed, the British learned of the plans and ambushed the militia.

The actual location for the battle is still up for debate but archaeologists have found British buttons in an area that could be an associated encampment. Today, a historic marker also stands nearby where US 1 crosses Thomas Creek.

To read the inscription of the historic marker, or get the coordinates to find it yourself, check out it's posting on UNF's Digital Commons website.

Historic Marker comemorating the Battle of Thomas Creek. Photo Credit: Waymarking.com
Battle of Alligator BridgeAgain in 1778, Georgia militiamen and Continental troops rallied together to attack the British troops in East Florida. On June 30, the sides meet at near a bridge at Alligator Creek, a tributary of the Nassau River. A skirmish ensued until the Continental Army retreated.

The exact site for this battle is also still disputed. A historic marker along Highway 301 in Callahan commemorates this battle. To locate the marker to visit it yourself, check out the marker on Waymarking.com.

Marker for the Battle of Alligator Bridge. Photo Credit: Waymarking.com.

The Storm Wreck
After the war ended, British Loyalists hit the road back to friendly territory. East Florida was still the closest friendly port-of-call. A large fleet of ships of all shapes and sizes left Charleston under way to St. Augustine, but a storm hit when they arrived. Several boats sank, including the yet-to-be-specifically-indentified Storm Wreck.

Archaeologists with the Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program (LAMP) at the St. Augustine Lighthouse discovered the wreck in 2009 and have worked at the site for several field seasons sense, recovering everything from military buttons to door hardware - things fleeing residents would take with them.

LAMP Archaeologists raising a canon from the Storm Wreck in June 2011.

For more information on the Storm Wreck, please visit the LAMP's website.

Happy 4th of July from FPAN!

Text and Photos (unless noted) by Emily Jane Murray, FPAN Staff.

Beach Encounters: Of the Artifact Kind

It's HOT in Florida and time to hit the beach!
 There are many encounters that concern beach dwellers:

 But what about..... ARTIFACT ENCOUNTERS???  Don't fear!  You can call The Bureau of Archaeology at 850-245-6444 to report artifacts found on the beach and their locations.
For more information: www.flheritage.com/archaeology. 
FPAN created the card below to inform people of the steps that should be taken:

Text: Robbie Boggs
Photos: floridahistoriccoast.com, oneplus.net, consolidatetimes.com, cs.stewards.edu
Beach Card: FPAN

Meet Our Summer Intern!

East Central Summer Internship

This summer the East Central Region will be working with an intern from Valencia College. Glenda will be learning about Public Archaeology through a project that will work to assist the ongoing Orange County Historic Cemetery Recording Project (OCHCRP). Glenda will be recording one historic cemetery in Winter Garden and throughout the whole process she will be blogging about her experience. Check out her first post here and be sure to check back each week as her project progresses!

Text and pics: Kevin Gidusko

Coming to a Library and School near you--Village Trade!

Meet our latest education and outreach tool: the “Village Trade” card game!

Custom box by our intern Tanis! 

When I tell people that FPAN’s core mission is to conduct education and outreach, it always leads to more questions.—“Who do you educate, how old are your students, how do you communicate archaeology to the public?” 

My answer always varies, but it ends up something like this:

“Well, we work with all age groups, from age 5 to 105. And we focus on state and local parks, K-12 schools, and museums; basically anywhere that has a vested interest in history, cultural resources, and preservation is a good venue for FPAN programming. Our organization delivers workshops, lectures, activities, and pretty much anything else we can do to pass on our mission of heritage preservation.”

Therefore, I’m happy that we have this trading card game as our newest medium for teaching about archaeology and Florida Prehistory.

Each player receives a board like this one, to keep track of their products and materials

The object of the game is to trade and collect natural resources such as palm fronds, shells, bones, lumber, and then use them to create tools and structures of Florida’s past. In addition you’ll need to create one “special item” before your opponents do.

Of course in Florida, you'd want to build a mound! 

Special Items include ear spools and pendants! 

 For example, it would take 1 wood, 1 palm frond, and 1 shell to create a shell hammer. But, to earn the coveted ear spools, you would need to get your hands on 1 wood, 1 bone, and 1 piece of (rare) copper. The first player to construct their village, forge their tools, and obtain an exotic piece of jewelry wins the game!

Bones, Wood, and Shells, oh my! 

“Village Trade” will be coming to a school, library, and museum near you!!

Text and Images, Ryan Harke. Full credit to Tanis Montgomery for illustrations and graphic design of cards and game box. 

Digging Deeper: Archaeology at the Fountain of Youth

             Archaeology, it’s a unique blend between mundane and magical. Oftentimes people equate archaeology with the glory and glamour of Indiana Jones or the adventures experienced in The Mummy. Though life as an archaeologist looks and feels quite unlike Hollywood’s vision, the work is never boring. What answers lie beneath the ground compels my curiosity and imagination. The information uncovered through archaeology is exciting. Finding objects made, used, perhaps cherished, by real people at some point in the past provides a sensation other professions cannot. Working to know people in the past, to understand them, to reveal their stories, and to share those stories with others is, to me, immensely more interesting than Indy’s tales.

            As we prepared for the field season at the Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park, we began with the mundane tasks in order to move toward the magical. Our first week involved preparing the site for archaeology. We cleaned and organized equipment. We decided where the screening station would be. We relocated our datum points—established points that never move and that tie all of our units together. We strung our units and we readied ourselves for digging!

 We pull tapes to find more datum points.
Tapes, datums, survey equipment, and the crew
            Unlike past years, Dr. Kathy Deagan from the University of Florida decided to utilize a backhoe to help strip larger areas for excavation and to save considerable time. Kathy’s familiarity with the soil on site, and her analysis of non-modern soil depths from maps made in previous seasons, helped her to determine how deep the backhoe should dig. The machine stripped the sod and modern overburden (or soil related to the 20th century) from two blocks: one 6 meters by 7 meters (Block 1) and the other 10 meters by 10 meters (Block 2).

David, Tommy, and Janet remove sod to make an outline for the backhoe operator to follow.

Beep beep! The backhoe begins to work as Linda measures how deep it digs.


            Kathy selected the block areas for specific reasons. Research questions guide archaeology and our interests were two-fold: first, could we locate units excavated in the 1950s? We have records of the dig, but lacked enough information to definitively tie those excavations into those completed by Kathy. Second, could we locate features (soil stains) that relate to the fortifications of the 1565 Menendez encampment?

Kathy looks on as the sod leaves Block 2.
            With two blocks created by backhoe, we faced the task of leveling these large blocks. With shovels and trowels in hand, the crew began to bring the block areas to the same depth. We battled through shell and slayed roots, large and small.

The pink string shows our first unit!
Janet and Linda schnitting as Tommy chats with visitors.

            At this point, the mundane and the magical merged. We traversed the land, finding the tools we needed and marking areas we needed to know. We guided our backhoe friend through careful, but massive, excavation. We measured and plotted. We schnitted and troweled. We overcame nature to make our units square. With flat floors and straight walls, we looked to the soil. There the next chapter begins…

The 2015 field season spans six weeks and we’re in the middle of the fourth week. You can look forward to more posts about the field season and our finds. In between blog posts, keep up with the dig on the Fountain of Youth’s Facebook page or with the hashtag #FOYarchaeology on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

Text and photos: Sarah Bennett

We're Back!: Archaeology at the Fountain of Youth

For many people, the most wonderful time of the year relates to a favorite holiday—presents beneath the Christmas tree, an annual birthday bash, Mom’s Thanksgiving turkey. For me, the excitement of a field season at the Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park brings pep to my step and a twinkle of excitement to my eyes. Some people dream of the aroma of Christmas ham. I dream of the smell, and the occasional accidental taste, of dirt. Some people anticipate colorful Fourth of July fireworks and their powerful, resounding booms. I anticipate dirt stains on my hands and chatty peacocks. Some people countdown to dying and searching for Easter eggs. I count down to the art of archaeological investigation.

Under the direction of Dr. Kathleen Deagan from The Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, archaeologists began working at the Fountain of Youth (FOY) during the mid-1970s. For many years, students learned about archaeology and excavating from Dr. Deagan at FOY. In recent years, professional archaeologists began to dig at the site with Dr. Deagan. For the past two years, I have been privileged to be one of those archaeologists.

The 2014 crew goes strong into 2015. We miss you, Greg!

Archaeology is scientific and excavations always seek to answer a research question. The 2014 field season answered few questions, but raised many more. This partially led me to my state of excited, archaeology-infused stupor. We would return to the site! We would be able to answer our questions! I’d spend the day in the dirt, finding features and artifacts! We’d have peacocks and peahens as company! People visiting FOY would see archaeology in action! Field season at FOY—it’s the most wonderful time of the year.

Sketch map of units and features from 2014

This year the dig will focus on two areas and our interest relates especially to soil stains, or features. John Goggin, an archaeologist, briefly dug at FOY during the 1950s. Archaeology and excavation methods were immensely different at that time. As Goggin’s team dug, they did not screen much of their dirt, left features intact, and made notes and maps that will be helpful when tied into Deagan’s excavations. In many ways, Goggin guides our current digging plans. The questions that guide us include: where were Goggin’s units? If we find features, are they related to the 1565 Menendez encampment? If so, are they related to the encampment’s fortifications? Past digs offered much information about the area in which the Spanish lived. Where was the settlement boundary and how did it look?
Block 1—searching for evidence of Goggin’s units or post holes related to Menendez’ fortifications
Block 2—in search of Goggin’s 1950s units and Spanish features
The 2015 field season spans six weeks and we’re working toward the end of the third week. You can look forward to more posts about the field season and our finds. In between blog posts, keep up with the dig on the Fountain of Youth’s Facebook page or with the hashtag #FOYarchaeology on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

Text and photo credit: Sarah Bennett; thanks to David Underwood for the last picture.

Report From the Field: Investigating Monumental Earthwork Construction in Central/South Florida

Into the Wild

One of our favorite colleagues, Nate Lawres, is out in the field for the next few weeks and offered to send dispatches back to those of us manning the desks so that we could show you, gentle readers, some of the great research happening in the state. Nate is a PhD student at the University of Florida and his research partner, Matt H. Colvin, is a graduate student from the great Anthropology Department at the University of Georgia. Their research holds a lot of promise to broaden our knowledge of monumental earthwork construction here in the state of Florida. Be sure to drop them a note if you have further questions (emails below).

Nate and Matt will be investigating earthworks in the Central/South area of Florida.

Over the course of the next two weeks researchers from University of Georgia and University of Florida will be beginning the first phase of a long-term research project on monumental earthwork construction practices in the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades watershed.  The first phase of the project is aimed at understanding the temporality of monumental construction in the region by focusing on the stratigraphic sequences of construction and the recovery of datable materials through minimally invasive methods (i.e., coring, shovel testing, etc.) at multiple monumental sites in the region, including Fort Center (Figure), Big Mound City, and the Lakeport Earthworks (Figure) to name but a few. 

Figure 1. Left: Fort Center site, circa 1949; Right: Lakeport Earthworks, circa 1949. (Note: Red arrows and lines have been added by blog poster to highlight earthworks)

One of the primary methods being used is core sampling.  The cores are 1.2-inch diameter clear sleeves that are hammered to an initial depth of 1 meter, with additional meter-long sleeves that can be added when needed.  The clear sleeves allow a view of the stratigraphic sequence immediately upon removal from the sediment, and when the sediments seem to hold the promise of containing datable materials (i.e., charred botanicals, etc.) the sleeves are easily opened to remove a sample for analysis. 

Figure 2. Left: M. Colvin deploying core; Center: M. Colvin extracting core; Right: resulting core sleeve.

The cores are being strategically taken from different features of the earthworks in order to provide insight into the temporality of construction (i.e., were all features of an earthwork constructed around the same time? was one portion built first and then added to at a much later time?).  This initial data set will provide the researchers with an idea as to whether some of these earthworks were constructed as events or whether they were continuously altered and added to over time.  Additionally, by recovering data from multiple sites it will provide insight into the chronology of earthworks in the region and whether these constructions were temporally contiguous or not.

Over the next few field seasons this project will be creating a regional chonometric data set that multiple (and future) researchers can both draw form and contribute to in order to gain a broader scale understanding of the archaeological record of South Florida.  In the long run it is hoped that this regional data set will contain in-depth analytical details regarding practices of monumental construction, ceramic production, lithic production, material sourcing, and the patterns of movement (including both people and material objects) throughout the region and beyond.

Stay tuned for updates and pictures from the field!

For more information about the project and upcoming results feel free to contact Matthew H. Colvin (mhcolvin@uga.edu) and/or Nathan R. Lawres (nlawres@ufl.edu).

Text: Nate Lawres, Matt Colvin, and Kevin Gidusko
Pics: Nate Lawres, Google Maps

Beads and Archaeology

We recently hosted our first Archaeology Works: Beads Workshop at the New Smyrna Museum of History. Just in case you missed it, here's five important things to know about beads in the archaeological record!

1) Beads are found a lots of different sites.

From prehistoric middens to 19th century trash pits, beads are found at site throughout time. Some of the earliest beads in Florida date to the Paleoindian Period. They are tiny stone beads found in spring sites in the Apalachicola Bay area. We continue to find beads in trash pits, cemeteries, structural remains and more throughout Florida's history.

These shell beads from Windover Pond in Titusville are almost 7,500 years old!
Archaeologists found glass beads in the cabins of slaves at Kingsley Plantation during the early 1800s.

Pedro Menendez brought these glass beads with him to St. Augustine in 1565.

2) Beads are made from lots of different materials.

As beads were made in different places at different times, they're also made from all sorts of materials: bone, stone, glass, wood, seeds and more! The material can be clues to the time and place of the beads manufacturing, as well as tell a lot about the people who made and used them.

These bone beads are also from the Fountain of Youth site, St. Augustine.
Shell and shark's tooth beads I helped uncovered at Mill Cove Complex, a Mississipian site in Jacksonville.
3) Beads can tell us about trade and culture.

Shell beads are found at Cahokia, far from their coastal source. Glass beads traveled with the Spanish, British and French to the America and Africa. Beads can help archaeologists uncover how people and objects moved around the world!

Some of the earliest trade beads include chervons (top left). Fountain of Youth, St. Augustine.

4) Glass beads can be very complicated to study.

Glass beads have subtle differences based on how they were made. Archaeologists try to determine how beads where made to help them decipher when and where they were made. Certain trends and techniques can be traced back to glass shops.

Molded bead classification guide from Kidd and Kidd, 1970.
Drawn bead classification guide from Kidd and Kidd, 1970.

5) Beads are a unique personal item.

 Beads can represent social status, religious practices and even economics of the past. People still treasure items like this today, and trying to tease this out in the past can be difficult but always very rewarding.

Selected beads from the cemetery at Mission Santa Catalina de Guale on St. Catherine's Island, GA.

Text and some photos by Emily Jane Murray, FPAN Staff. Other artifact photos courtesy of the University of Florida, the Florida Museum of Natural History, Parks Canada and the American Museum of Natural History.

Archaeology and Earth Day!

Earth day has its beginnings at a UNESCO conference, held in San Francisco in the year 1969. There, it was proposed that we should celebrate peace, the earth, her environment, and foster programs and outreach to promote environmentally-sound development for future generations.

Lets keep it this way! (I feel like I used this image in a separate blog... hmm) 

It was initially proposed that earth day be celebrated on March 21, 1970 as the first day of the spring equinox, and so that came to pass. However, in the United States, this date shifted to April 22 just one month later, because a national programs coordinator held a massive environmental teach-in day, also called earth day. By 1990 this same man, Dennis Hayes, took environmental programming international and Earth Day has been celebrated in many corners of the globe on April 22 ever since.

Although Earth Day is rooted in the natural environment, archaeology--as the study of past human beings--is inextricably linked to the natural environment. So, we've just as many reasons to care about how people have affected our environment over many thousands of years!!

Archaeologists have celebrated Earth Day by highlighting different aspects of human culture:

One way we have connected humans affect on the environment is through recycling and the study of modern trash--Garbology. Archaeologists learn much from studying past human refuse deposits, but we can also learn a lot about human behavior from studying modern trash deposits. Events like this one at the Natural History Museum in D.C. are common.

City Landfill, a modern midden!

Another popular way to connect the public with Native history and the natural environment is through archaeology tours and hikes. Guided tours allow the archaeologist an opportunity to explain how natives used the environment around them in their everyday lives, while showcasing habitats directly. Here is an example from California where the public can walk a Native Trail on Earth Day.

An archaeologist at the Randell Research Center in Pineland FL highlights how  Natives altered the local environment

Of course, there are numerous other ways that archaeology is celebrated on earth day. Always check up on our website at  www.fpan.us  to see holiday-themed events! 

Wherever your travels take you this earth day, remember that our natural resources are extremely important, and they're forever tied to our cultural resources as well! 

Text and Images, Ryan Harke. Full Credit to Randell Research Center for Pineland photograph.

Unofficial Women's Archaeology Week!

As Florida Archaeology Month drew to a close I realized that ever year in March we miss out on celebrating Women's History Month. Wouldn't it be great if there was a way to celebrate women in Florida archaeology?

Now there is!

We began Unofficial Women's Archaeology Week posts on our Facebook page this week and found no end to the women in Florida archaeology to celebrate. Here are a few from the collective posts. Add your favorite in the comments and we'll try to make in an annual habit--unofficially, that is;)

The image above comes from the post that started it all...spontaneous Kathy Deagan photo contest as we tried to help out a local exhibit in need of her likeness. Visit her virtual St. Augustine exhibit on the Florida Museum of Natural History's website.

Also from FLMNH, we got to meet Barbara Purdy when she came to talk to the St. Augustine Archaeology Association. Another amazing Florida archaeologist!

If you've been to Mission San Luis and liked what you saw, you have Bonnie McEwan to thank!

None of us at FPAN would be here today if it were not for the advocacy efforts of Judy Bense, now President of the University of West Florida.

And two more of our fearless leader in action (I can't resist)!

Rebecca Saunders came to Florida recently to give a lecture on Mission Period archaeology at the Amelia Island Museum of History. Check out parts 1-5 on their YouTube channel!

Last but not least, Nancy White! She contributed to the volume Grit Tempered which is a great place to start if you are interested in learning more about women in archaeology, particularly in the southeast. 

For more information on Grit Tempered check out the book available from University Press of Florida or at your local library.

Why do so many of these pictures look like they are from a PowerPoint presentation? Because they are! Contact us to request a presentation on Famous Florida Women Archaeologists and again leave your comments below with nominations for next year!

Text: Sarah Miller
Images: from Grit Tempered 2: Famous Florida Women Archaeologists presentation for public audiences. Most photos saved from the websites referenced in the intro or on staff webpages at host institutions.

Now...wasn't that better than this:
Angelina Jolie as an...archaeologist?

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