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Saint Augustine, Northeast Florida
Going public with archaeology for outreach, assistance to local governments, and service to the citizens and state of Florida. Visit our website at: http://flpublicarchaeology.org/nerc/
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Florida and the American Revolution: The Forgotten 14th and 15th Colonies.

Original signed copy of the Declaration:

July 4th, 1776- Every American citizen knows the story of the Declaration of Independence (hopefully). The original 13 Colonies exhausted over years of taxation and exploitation, drafted and signed a Declaration of Independence from British rule and began the start of The United States America. But what about the 14th and 15th colonies of East and West Florida?

The first line of the Declaration of Independence reads: The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America". At the time there were 15 colonies on continental America and numerous others in the Caribbean.

The so called "original 13 colonies" of the United States of America, are truly only that, 13 united colonies (note the convenient capitalization of united). These colonies; Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island, committed treason against England, the King and ultimately, God himself (King George was the head of the Church of England).

"1776" a 1972 musical comedy. 

At least that is what the remaining two colonies would have thought.
East and West Florida Colonies Circa 1765:
East and West Florida were part of 15 British colonies in America, and apart of a larger network of over 30 colonies around the globe. News reached East Florida's capital of St. Augustine over a month after the signing of the declaration on August 11th. Citizens of St. Augustine were not happy in slightest, that evening they burned effigies of John Hancock and Samuel Adams.

East Florida had been adamant about their loyalty ever since receiving the invitation to the First Continental Congress in 1774. Not only with the symbolic burning in St. Augustine, they also wrote their loyalty publicly and to the King, but they also developed their own militia, the East Florida Rangers.

These Rangers consisted of East Florida citizens and refugee Tories from the Carolinas and Georgia. The East Florida Rangers worked for the Governor keeping the peace between plantation owners and local Native American groups, they also were on scouting missions for the British, including traveling to just outside of Savannah, GA!

The Florida colonies were significant as they opened the rest of the 13 colonies to the Caribbean and trade. George Washington issued five different invasions of East Florida between 1776 and 1780. One of the larger battles took place on May 17, 1777, known as the Battle of Thomas Creek. The southern most batter of the Revolution, the battle began due to the East Florida rangers raiding into Georgia stealing cattle and other supplies. American forces of 100 Georgia militia marched into Florida in attempts to quell the raids. They were to meet 400 Continental soldiers at Thomas Creek. Before they had the chance to reinforce their numbers British troops, Loyalists, and Creek Indians attacked the Georgia militia. Of the 100 Patriots, 8 dead, 9 wounded, and 39 captured.

"Incident at Thomas Creek" by Jackson Walker commissioned by the Florida National Guard: http://jacksonwalkerstudio.com/Gallery%20items/incidentatthomascreek.html

In 1779, East Floridians must have been feeling confident in their status as British Citizens, the East Florida Rangers were now formally recognized by the England and were renamed the King's Rangers, but the Spanish had found a weakness in West Florida. The capital of West Florida was an important military staging ground just like St. Augustine, but was under  In 2 short years West Florida was lost to Spain and 3 years later England sold both Florida Colonies to Spain to fund the war effort and to reclaim the original 13 colonies. 

Fireworks celebrating 4th of July in St. Augustine.
Good thing we don't "celebrate" like they did in 1776!

So remember Floridians as you celebrate 4th of July- we are a bunch of Tories! 

For further reading, check out my sources!

New Smyrna Celebrates: Pastime Play

New Smyrna’s biggest birthday bash (yet!) happens this Saturday. The City, with assistance from the New Smyrna Museum of History, will celebrate 250 years of culture, history, and heritage. Visit Old Fort Park between 9am and 4pm to stroll through the past, enjoying New Smyrna as it is and as it was.

As I celebrate the history and archaeology of New Smyrna, I “make” a cake. Three centuries of local heritage provide the cake’s ingredients. The City’s rich heritage provides tantalizing ingredients for cake making. Each candle, when “lit,” will represent one story, as told through archaeology, from each century. Smyrnea Settlement sites ignited the 1700s candle. Coquina sparked the 1800s candle. Children – their time spent playing and gaming – kindle the 1900s.

Archaeologists are scientists and storytellers. By collecting data through excavation, examining historical documents, and collaborating with descendant communities, archaeologists act as scientists. As they interpret the gathered information, archaeologists transform numbers and facts into observation and inferences. Through interpretation, archaeologists begin to understand – and share – stories about people in the past.

Archaeologists studies vary. Scientists make focus on a region, time period, or cultural behaviors and practices (such as religion, race, gender, age, or socioeconomic status). As archaeologists interpret stories of the past, they broaden current knowledge and appreciation of all aspects of the past. People often minimized or eliminated from historical knowledge find their place, and their voice, through archaeology. New Smyrna celebrates the voices of children in the city during the early 1900s. Although many aspects of a child’s typical day may remain obscured, let’s investigate a site that reminds us of the games children played.
Playtime is hot, sticky, sweaty summertime. Playtime is screaming, hollering, exploring, and competing. Playtime is imaginative and unpredictable. Playtime is freedom. Playtime amusements are plentiful and, oftentimes, played through the ages. Kids in New Smyrna played many of the same games as children (and adults) in 79 B.C.E. Rome, in 400 C.E. England, in 1565 St. Augustine, and in the homes and classrooms of today.
Canal Street contained clues about children’s play. Archaeologists monitored construction work on the west side of the road in early 2010. The construction crew removed soil from the canal. Dump trucks moved the soil from the street to an open field. There the archaeologists scanned sand mountains for evidence of the past.
Among road rubble and modern debris, artifacts awaited. The Smyrnea Settlement canal system (the product of Dr. Andrew Turnbull’s vision) once served as a means of transporting agricultural goods. During the past century, Turnbull’s canal served as a prime place to put trash. Archaeologists discovered medicine bottles, alcohol bottles, a horseshoe, pipes, leather shoe soles, spoon, and tools. Marbles and porcelain doll fragments – a testament to children at play – were scattered among the other artifacts (see the sample below).
Context is critical to archaeologists. Knowing what materials came from which specific location underlies interpretation. Context at the canals revealed a mixed mess. Based on all artifact types, archaeologists concluded that the trash dated to the very late 1800s and the early 1900s. The glass marbles discovered during the project date to the 1900s. (Clay marbles, also called commies, were first produced, and more popular, in the late 1800s.) M.F. Christensen began to mass produce glass marbles in 1915. A game, enjoyed by adults and children for hundreds of years, found its niche in the hands of children playing.
May you find this slice of cake indulgent and delectable. If “lighting” the third (and final) candle kindled your curiosity, consider attending New Smyrna Beach’s 250th celebration. The park will feature areas that highlight New Smyrna during the 1700, 1800, and 1900s. An Archaeology Discovery Station will be present in each century. Explore archaeology of the 1900s. Visit The Games They Played to test your play skills and be competitive. Rediscover the childhood that kids experienced then and experience now.
Savor your final cake slice. Return to enjoy past servings if you please. Please join myself, the New Smyrna Museum of History, the City of New Smyrna Beach, and friends in the community on Saturday, June 16th. Make our 250th “cake” more than digital – make it real.
Text and images by Sarah Bennett, New Smyrna Museum of History
Stroll Through History and the 250th logos produced by Shok Idea Group

New Smyrna Celebrates: Coquina in the City

I’ve invited you to partake in New Smyrna’s biggest birthday bash to date. On Saturday, June 16th, the City celebrates 250 years of heritage and culture. As the event, which runs from 9am to 4pm, is a festivity, some type of cake is required. To celebrate the history and archaeology of New Smyrna, I’ve been “making” a cake. Three centuries of local heritage provide the cake’s ingredients. Each candle, when “lit,” will represent one story, as told through archaeology, from each century. Smyrnea Settlement sites ignited the 1700s candle; coquina will spark the 1800s.
St. Augustine's Castillo demonstrating coquina's beautiful durability.
 In the most basic science terms, coquina is a sedimentary rock made from small clam shells. Accumulations of dead clam shells, changing sea levels, rain water, acidity, and calcium carbonate develop a material that may look more akin to Rice Krispies than rocks. In terms of archaeology and geology, coquina transforms into an extremely unique, versatile, durable material that people used for buildings and other founs. Residents of colonial St. Augustine first used coquina in 1672. Workers quarried and transported the material to build the Castillo de San Marcos.

Smyrnea Settlement residents also considered coquina quality material. Settlers incorporated the stone into their houses, reinforced the Settlement’s canal system with coquina, and built at least two large structures with the material: the wharf and the “fort” at Old Fort Park. Coquina’s popularity extended into the 1800s and 1900s. Laborers built the Cruger-dePeyster Sugar Mill (left) using coquina. Workers, primarily black slaves, processed sugar cane during the 1830s. A pedestrian bridge crosses one of the Turnbull-era canals in Myrtle Avenue Park (right). New Smyrna residents enjoyed strolling across a handful of these bridges in the early 1900s.

Old Fort Park has captured the attention and imagination of resident and visitor alike. Built into a Native American shell midden (a mound of accumulated shell trash), the coquina foundation’s origins and purpose shroud the structure in mystery. Multiple romanticized accounts consider the foundation to be a fort. Works Progress Administration (WPA) workers restored and reconstructed the “fort.” Myth and local lore served as an imposing guide to their endeavors. The foundation we see today is probably different from the original footprint.

Archaeologists and historians, however, have collected some information about this strange, yet captivating, structure. Although the foundation spans New Smyrna’s existence, residents most intensively used the site during the 1800s. George Clark’s 1817 Spanish survey map provides the first known reference to the site; Clark calls the structure “Turnbull’s Palace.”

Smyrnea residents constructed the foundation for (currently) unknown reasons. Archaeologists proposed the structure had a commercial purpose. Excavations revealed tabby floor surfaces with inconsistent thickness and wear patterns. Could these be the result of moving equipment or people walking the same paths and standing in the same places? Did the Smyrnea settlers build this structure to serve as a storehouse downtown?

 Ambrose Hull settled the site in 1803 and probably reused the coquina foundation for his home. Archaeological investigations suggest that, over time, differed people built the foundation up and out. During the 1850s, John and Jane Sheldon constructed a 60-room hotel atop the midden and foundation. The hotel remained on the midden for roughly 40 years. The building endured Union shelling during the Civil War, reconstruction, and demolition.

Old Fort Park’s foundation, however, endured. The site, which provides an opportunity to investigate the past and discover the City’s “mystery,” is now a public park.

Archaeologists from Environmental Services, Inc. recently excavated at Old Fort Park. They surveyed
four areas before the City planted trees for Arbor Day. The project offered no new information about
the coquina structure, but did provide new clues about the midden below the foundation.
May you find this slice of cake indulgent and delectable. If “lighting” the second candle sparked your curiosity, consider partaking in New Smyrna Beach’s upcoming 250th celebration. The park will feature areas that highlight New Smyrna during the 1700, 1800, and 1900s. An Archaeology Discovery Station will be present in each century. Explore archaeology of the 1800s. Engage yourself by playing Building Blocks. Challenge yourself to analyze Old Fort Park’s coquina foundation and, perhaps, to solve the mystery.

Savor this slice of the cake. Then come back for thirds on Thursday, June 14th, for the next serving.
Text and images by Sarah Bennett, New Smyrna Museum of History
250th logo produced by Shok Idea Group

New Smyrna Celebrates: Smyrnea Settlement Sites

For as long as my mind can recall, I have considered cake to be a festivity fundamental. Birthdays, graduations, weddings, anniversaries, retirement parties, baby showers – cake should accompany any day of joyful celebration. New Smyrna Beach is prepping a HUGE celebration on June 16th. “Why?,” you might wonder. The city has existed for 250 years. We have much to commemorate!
As previously promised, I am embarking on a digital cake-making, candle-lighting venture with all who would like to join. New Smyrna’s archaeological heritage over the past three centuries will serve as the cake ingredients. Each candle, when “lit,” will represent one story, as told through archaeology, from each century.
To begin celebrating this city, we must venture back to the late 18th century (the late 1700s). We travel to a time when the British occupied Florida. Spanish control of St. Augustine and Florida floundered by 1763. Countless British men, women, and children entered the colonial streets of St. Augustine. The British government, and many wealthy individuals, considered Florida to be a vast land bloated by untapped resources, economic opportunities, and agricultural prospects. The potential to create an enterprise allured to Dr. Andrew Turnbull, a Scottish physician. Under his direction, the Smyrnea Settlement – a precursor to New Smyrna Beach – came into being.
Turnbull’s Smyrnea Settlement was a joint endeavor. Turnbull (left), Sir William Duncan, and George Grenville (right) combined their land grants (which amounted to a whopping 101,000 acres) and financial resources to develop a settlement in East Florida. The group, with Turnbull’s guidance, chose New Smyrna Beach.
Florida Memory provides this 18th century portrait of Turnbull. William Hoare painted Grenville in 1760.
With Smyrnea’s land and location arranged, Turnbull began to most important part of the process: recruiting settlers. Relying on his experiences while living in Egypt and Turkey, Turnbull sought a less common source of workers. He sought Mediterranean natives, particularly Minorcans, Greeks, and Italians. People from these areas, he thought, would be better suited for the Settlement. The Mediterranean was quite similar to that of Florida. Over the course of several months, Turnbull recruited 1,403 individuals. Settlers agreed to indenture terms. These terms required that settlers work for, at minimum, six years. Turnbull promised transport to Florida, housing, and food.

The voyage to Florida began in April 1768 and was not without casualties. Over 100 people perished at sea, leaving 1,225 men, women, and children to establish Smyrnea. Turnbull’s Settlement dismally failed after 11 years. During those years, those who had emigrated endured high death rates, food shortages, crop failures, and – according to some testimonies – abuses imparted by overseers and, on occasion, Turnbull.1 Settlers also experienced agricultural successes, especially with indigo, and developed an innovative canal system.
Dr. Daniel Schafer, professor emeritus at the University of North Florida, has intensively studied British plantations and settlements in Florida. His interest in Smyrnea has significantly increased knowledge and understanding of the Settlement. Schafer traveled to England and Scotland, visiting archives and collecting historical documents relating to the Settlement. Official correspondence, informal letters, receipts and bills, and other documents provide information about life at and the people of Smyrnea.

 Archaeologists Dr. Roger Grange and Dorothy “Dot” Moore have scrupulously studied the Smyrnea Settlement for over 20 years. Modern development prompted local archaeologists, and the City, to investigate the buried past. Their archaeological investigations enable us to “light” our cake’s candle. To celebrate Smyrnea, which was the largest British settlement attempt in the New World, we focus on two sites: The First Turnbull Settlement House Site and the White-Fox Site.
The First Turnbull Settlement House Site -- an apt name for the first Smyrnea-era site discovered in New Smyrna Beach. While investigating land slated for development on US1, Dot Moore noticed hewn coquina on the ground surface. Over the course of a year, Dot, Roger, and 50 volunteers excavated a settler’s house and two other associated buildings. Excavation revealed a house, the foundation and floor of an 18 square foot building, and the base of a bread oven. All of the structures incorporated coquina as an architectural element.2 Similar to present day townhouses, internal walls separated the settler’s house into two living spaces. Unfortunately, artifact collectors seeking objects for their private collections damaged much of this site.

Dr. Roger Grange digitized a map of the First Turnbull Settlement House Site. The map
includes the location of all three structures as they appeared in the excavation units.

Investigations at the White-Fox Site occurred in 2001. Dot, Roger, and an invaluable volunteer labor force again excavated a house. Archaeologists noted that an internal wall also divided this structure; however, this home was split into two rooms, not two residences. The crew also found a large oven, also made of coquina. The oven was probably large enough to produce enough bread for most settlers who resided in town. (You can see part of this site! The oven base is on display at the New Smyrna Museum of History.)


Dorothy Whitner Backes' conceptual depiction of the White-Fox site oven.
Piecing together the past is a process. Understanding settler’s lives and experiences requires attention to numerous types of data and information. Archaeologists who study Smyrnea rely on architectural features, such as the hewn coquina, and artifacts to tell the Settlement’s stories. Close attention to context enables artifacts – objects made or used by humans – to provide significant information to archaeologists.
Although Minorcans, Greeks, and Italians comprised most of the Smyrnea population, their possessions were few. Turnbull purchased, transported, and imported innumerable supplies for the settlers. Most of these objects were of British origin. Settlers used agateware, slipware, creamware, and other English style ceramics. People smoked tobacco out of kaolin pipes. Wrought nails held homes and other structures together. Buttons and buckles reflect British styles and preferences.

This Staffrdshire slipware-style posset cup was found, relatively intact, during excavation. Archaeologists

mended the broken pieces. The cup is currently interpreted at the New Smyrna Museum of History.
May you find this cake indulgent and delectable. If “lighting” the first candle has sparked your curiosity, consider partaking in New Smyrna Beach’s upcoming 250th celebration. The event will take place at Old Fort Park from 9am to 4pm on June 16th. The park will feature areas that highlight New Smyrna during the 1700, 1800, and 1900s. An Archaeology Discovery Station will be present in each century. Explore archaeology of the 1700s. Engage yourself by playing Puzzles of the Past. Challenge yourself to mend a piece of the past.
Savor this slice of cake. (If you prefer to enjoy more of the 1700s, see the recommended reading list below). Tune in Monday, June 11th, for a second serving!
1. For many years, individual testimonials regarding abuse at Smyrnea went unquestioned. Archaeologists and historians are starting to reexamine these documents and the archaeological data. It is possible that underlying political divisions influenced the content of the testimonies or the investigative process.
2. Coquina is a naturally occurring sedimentary rock unique to Northeast Florida. Coquina can be, and was, quarried and used to build structures.

Recommended Reading

Beeson, Kenneth H., Jr.
2006    Fromajadas and Indigo: The Minorcan Colony in Florida. The History Press, Charleston.
Grange, Roger T., Jr. and Dorothy L. Moore
2016    Smyrnea Settlement: Archaeology and History of an 18th Century British Plantation in
East Florida. The New Smyrna Museum of History, New Smyrna Beach.
Grange, Roger T., Jr.
1999    The Turnbull Colonist’s House at New Smyrna Beach: A Preliminary Report on
8VO7051. The Florida Anthropologist 52(1–2):73–84.

2011    Saving Eighteenth-Century New Smyrnea: Public Archaeology in Action. Present Pasts
Griffin, Patricia C.
1991    Mullet on the Beach: The Minorcans of Florida, 1768-1788. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Text by Sarah Bennett, New Smyrna Museum of History
Images courtesy of Roger Grange (unless otherwise noted)
Logo by Shok Idea Group



Introducing Emma, East Central's new Outreach Coordinator

Hi, I'm Emily Dietrich, but everyone calls me Emma! I am extremely excited about getting on the road and engaging local Floridians about the East Central's archaeology, history, and heritage! To further introduce myself, here is the tale of how I got into archaeology. 

I knew I wanted to be an archaeologist by the time I was 6. My mother boasts that she "drug me to every historic home, battlefield, and museum along the East Coast", and for the most part that is true! She also accidentally introduced me to archaeology and public archaeology for the very first time at St. Mary's Historic City, Maryland.

Little Emma on the Dove in St. Mary's Historic city circa 1998
Little Emma at SMHC
Excavations were happening around the 1667 Chapel in search of the graves of Maryland's first colonists. The cemetery records and grave markers were long lost, and the archaeologists were looking to find and record the burials. What they ended up finding were distinct eras of Chapel where graves were crisscrossed, stacked a few feet above older graves, and arranged in any direction. The investigation of these 17th century burial practices would produce years of reports, articles, and books. To a 6 year old, it was people digging holes and finding cool stuff.

Just seeing the excavations sparked my interest, but thankfully I had a little more help solidifying my future career. One of the archaeologists (who I wish I could meet and shake their hand!) saw my enthusiasm and passed off one of his brushes and let me "assist" in the excavation. Slowly bushing away the soil, I knew I wanted to be an archaeologist.

Big Emma at Joseph Priestly
House Museum, PA
I continued to peruse archaeology as a young adult working in local museums in Northumberland, PA and Gettysburg, PA, and always keeping up with the historical vacations. 

I received my B.A. from Mercyhurst University concentrating in Archaeology and Sociocultural Anthropology. Where I learned I really wanted to share my love of archaeology with people, not just do the excavations. I was interested in creating the spark for someone else, just as someone did for me 20 years ago.  

I am currently attempting to do that. I came to Florida in 2014 to the University of West Florida to get my Master's degree and to work with the Florida Public Archaeology Network. For the past 3 years I was a graduate assistant with the Coordinating Center in Pensacola working on public outreach in the Panhandle and my thesis research. 

For my thesis research I have been working with the Milton High School Archaeology Project since 2015 developing the curriculum for teaching archaeology in high school. The program is a partnership between Santa Rosa County School Board and FPAN where the archaeology portion of an Anthropology/Florida History elective is taught at a privately owned archaeological site along the Blackwater River. The students learn the entire process of archaeology, from transcribing historical documents, excavations, to maritime surveys, and museum exhibit installation. 

Students of the MHS Archaeology Project in 2016 with the installation of
 Janene Johnston's museum exhibit on archaeology at Natural Bridge Battle Field. 

In the East Central office I am going to attempt to fill Kevin's very large shoes (and fins) and learn more about the maker space he developed and continue FPAN's legacy of 3D modeling the region. At the same time, I am eager to combine my interests of public education, history, archaeology, diving, and ocean conservation to create programming for the East Central Region. I am looking forward to getting out and the region and learning all that I can (and finding a few new breweries)!

Hope to see you on the road!

Just for fun- here is a photo of Tiny Emma terrified of sand... 
And she would become an archaeologist?

Text and Photos by FPAN Staff: Emma Dietrich

New Smyrna Celebrates: Your Invitation to the Party

For many Floridians, New Smyrna Beach is an East Coast gem. The beaches are beautiful. The waves are surfable. The shops are quaint and local. The restaurants are unique and delicious. The city is stuffed with art and culture. Ocean breezes dance across the island, coolly grazing residents to the west. Boats roar to life, angling for the rich resources awaiting their cargo. Visitors engulf State Road 44, eager to swelter and see the sights. Sandhill cranes peruse the rural areas, seeking snacks. Trails wind through pristine wilderness, offering opportunities to pair recreation with wonder.

Fewer Floridians may appreciate the city’s heritage: three centuries of human settlement and development. Native American groups recognized and utilized the land and resources in New Smyrna Beach before European settlers arrived. New Smyrna – as it exists today – emerged as a result of Dr. Andrew Turnbull’s Smyrnea Settlement.

The settlement leads New Smyrna to celebrate something BIG in 2018. Our city celebrates its 250th anniversary! To rejoice in our shared heritage and youthful community, the New Smyrna Museum of History and the City of New Smyrna will host a 250th event at Old Fort Park. The event merges the grace of an anniversary with the exuberance of a birthday party to tell the story of our city. Stroll through Old Fort Park. Encounter the history, archaeology, and heritage of New Smyrna Beach. Explore the places, people, and events that shaped and defined our city.

I invite you to enjoy a digital birthday cake. The ingredients consist of the city’s archaeological sites that date to the 1700, 1800, and 1900s. Although 250 candles may not fit on a birthday cake, three candles will. Join me in “lighting” candles representing the last three centuries of New Smyrna Beach. Discover archaeology in New Smyrna Beach. Revel in new information. Then join us for the BIG June 16th celebration.

The next installment will transport us to the 1700s, where we will explore the Smyrnea settlement. Come to the (NSB digital archaeology) kitchen this Thursday. Let’s make this cake!

Text by Sarah Bennett, New Smyrna Museum of History
Images by Shok Idea Group

Recording Nombre De Dios Cemetery

Nombre De Dios Cemetery in St. Augustine, Florida
 FPAN is in the midst of another headstone recording project, this time in the beautiful Nombre De Dios Cemetery.  The cemetery is a part of the Mission Nombre de Dios and Shrine of Our Lady of La Leche in St. Augustine, Fl.

This location is also known as the place that has "The Great Cross" for obvious reasons...
The Great Cross commemorating St. Augustine's 400th Anniversary

The Catholic Diocese (the cemetery's owners) requested the survey from the Tolomato Cemetery Preservation Association (TCPA).  There is a lot of overlapping history between the two cemeteries so this request made sense.  The TCPA asked if FPAN would partner with them in the survey and of course we said YES!

So, in the first part of April, our Northeast Regional  FPAN team laid out a grid in the cemetery and divided it into 10 meter x 10 meter blocks.

Since this is such a highly visited cemetery, instead of  using visually obtrusive pin flags, we marked the blocks' locations with flagged nails.

When we come out to record, the first challenge of the day is locating these unobtrusive markers so we know where we are!

A map is then created to mark where each grave is located within its designated 10 x 10 block (these sketch maps will later be digitized).

With the help of volunteers, we methodically work our way through each block, numbering every  headstone with a Field Specimen number.    The volunteers then record each headstone by using an Individual Marker Form that looks like this:

As you can see from above, we record the measurements, materials, iconography, and condition of each headstone.  In addition, the inscription is recorded precisely as it is written on the headstone.  For those CRPT graduates, you know that this includes all misspellings, and illegible letters!

In addition to spending time in such a beautiful cemetery with a fascinating history, we also get to encounter many interesting and interested visitors while we're working!

Text and Photos (except top photo:Trip Advisory) by FPAN Staff: Robbie Boggs

Conversations About Conferences: Society of American Archaeology 2018, Washington, DC

In April, I shipped out to Washington, DC for the Society of American Archaeology's 83rd Annual Meeting. This week, Sarah and I sat down for a debrief on the experience.

Sarah: What did you expect in attending SAA 2018?
Emily Jane: I was excited to be talking about our work with HMS Florida at Shell Bluff Landing during a session on shell middens. I was also excited to take in some of Washington, DC, as I'd never been before.
My nerd-self found true happiness in seeing the original model of the USS Enterprise at the Air and Space Museum. Oh yes, I don't just geek out over artifacts.
S: What did you hope to get out of it?
EJ: I hoped to network with some old colleagues and friends, as well as share and brainstorm on some of our current projects, including site monitoring programs like HMS Florida.

S: What did you actually learn?
EJ: I learned about a really cool community engagement program in Nova Scotia, Canada called COASTAL (Community Observation, Assessment and Salvage of Threatened Archaeological Legacy). Archaeologists working with the Canadian Museum of History have partnered with local tribal communities and the public at large to record and monitor archaeological sites that are threatened by coastal erosion, looting and other impacts. It's great to hear about other programs around the world that are similar to HMS Florida. We can all learn from one another - what worked, what didn't and ways to improve all of the programs.

S:What was the hardest part of attending the conference?
EJ: Once again, I think the hardest part of SAA is always the size! I read through the sessions and paper titles and mapped out my weekend, only to realize I still missed some great sessions. With conferences like this, you just have to accept that you can't do and see it all.

S: What will you bring back from the conference to share with the public?
EJ: I was really inspired by a panel on archaeology advocacy, hearing stories from around the country of successes and failures. I have spent the past year trying to step up my advocacy game and speaking out for Florida's buried past at the state and local levels. I really hope to continue working on my advocacy skills and hopefully, inspire others to do the same.

S: What sessions and activities did you take part of?
EJ: Well, I attended the shell midden session I spoke in, as well as a few on public archaeology. As I mentioned, I also made it to a great panel discussion about archaeology advocacy. On Saturday afternoon, I went to the March for Science - a bit of an extra circular activity! There were several archaeologists from SAA who made it out to represent our field.

S: Do you have plan's for next year's conference?
EJ: Not really. I do love New Mexico! But I may sit it out and attend something a little smaller next year instead.

 Text and images by Emily Jane Murray, FPAN Staff.

Heritage at Risk: Who else is out there?

A frequent question we get asked during HMS Florida workshops is who else is doing this kind of work? Or phrased another way, who else is engaging local communities to address heritage at risk from climate change impacts?

HMS Florida Cemetery SLR map, logo, and new ARCHES portal.

 I started putting together a list of other programs, mainly international teams addressing heritage at risk in other countries. THIS LIST IS A WORK IN PROGRESS! Over the summer I hope to add and update program information. Please leave a comment below if your favorite program is not on the list.


Scottish Coastal Archaeology and the Problem of Erosion (SCAPE) directed by Tom Dawson and Joanna Hambly out of St. Andrews University. Their Scotland's Coastal Heritage at Risk Project (SCHARP) asked the public to explore a sites at risk map, help survey sites on the map using the ShoreUPDATE app, and request to revisit high priority areas over 3 years. Their Results and Highlights page captures work done over four years by 1200 volunteers, including 1074 ShoreUPDATE surveys and 400 new sites recorded. Tom and Joanna remain close friends of FPAN and have traveled twice so far to assist with the development of HMS Florida and the Tidally United Summit held each summer.

Click image or here to view SCHARP Sites at Risk map.

For more information on SCAPE:
Website http://www.scapetrust.org
Facebook https://www.facebook.com/ScotlandsCoastalHeritageAtRisk
Twitter https://twitter.com/CoastArch 

CITiZAN (England)

Click image or here to see CITiZAN Sites at Risk map.
The Coastal and Intertidal Zone Archaeological Network (CITiZAN) is similar to SCAPE but focused on coastal sites in England. They have a similar interactive map the public can use to monitor sites and submit survey reports. Their most recent site report on the blog is very similar to Spring Break Wreck discovery in St. Augustine, a wreck uncovered by heavy winter storms. "A wreck on Blyth beach" is a good example of citizens coming forward with information for CITiZAN.   

For more information on CITiZAN:
website https://www.citizan.org.uk
Facebook https://www.facebook.com/citizan1 
Twitter https://twitter.com/citizan1

CHERISH (Ireland and Wales)

Climate Heritage & Environments of Reefs, Islands and Headlands (CHERISH) is different from community engagement-based models like SCAPE and CITiZAN. They did not release an interactive map for the public to submit reports but are working collaboratively across borders to assess and manage sites at risk with the latest technology. They look at impacts of climate change on cultural heritage but also broader impacts on environmental resources such as reefs. CHERISH (Ireland and Wales) It is in their work plan to train citizen scientists in later phases. The program does not yet extend countrywide, but instead is focused on six select counties in Ireland and four in Wales as the EU funding allows.
Click image or here for CHERISH project area map.

Click on image or here to visit CHERISH technique page.

For more information on CHERISH
Website http://www.cherishproject.eu/en/
Facebook https://www.facebook.com/CherishProject/
Twitter https://twitter.com/cherishproj

ALeRT (France)
ALeRT brochure.
Archeologie, Littoral et Rechauffement Terrestre (ALeRT) started in 2006 as a multidisciplinary approach to address coastal heritage at risk. Since inception they worked to develop a vulnerability evaluation form and ALERT App for monitoring and updates. I first heard about ALeRT in 2014 when Fernandina Beach planner Adrienne Burke first put their brochure on my desk (view brochure). Most of their website and social media is in French, but their "Archaeological sites and coastal erosion along the English Channel and Atlantic shores" blog post in English here is a good place to start to learn more about the program.

Click image or here for ALeRT distribution map.
For more information on ALeRT:
Website https://alert-archeo.org
FB https://www.facebook.com/AlertArcheologie/ 
Twitter https://twitter.com/AlertArcheo

REMAINS (Greenland)

Click for REMAINS field sites.
Sent to me via YouRube by Sara Ayers-Rigsby, REseach and Management of Archaeological sites IN a changing environment and Society (REMAINS) is an impressive program in Greenland. Citing climate change as the greatest threat to their 4,000 years of human history, the program partners aim to assess and further study (many by means of excavation) the 6,000 sites under the threat of Arctic thaw. The program is set to run 2016-2018 in partnership by the National Museum of Denmark, Greenland National Museum, and Archives and Center for Permafrost (CENPERM) at University of Copenhagen with funding by Velux Foundation.

For more information on REMAINS:
Website http://www.remains.eu/
Project log: https://www.researchgate.net/project/REMAINS-of-Greenland 

Other programs on our radar:

COASTAL- Community Observation, Assessment and Salvage of Threatened Archaeological Legacy (Nova Scotia)

Midden Minders (Maine)

Society for California Climate Change and California Archaeology

Thousand Eyes Archaeological Site Stewardship Program (Tennessee)

More to come!

Text: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff
Images: links to original content provided in captions

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