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Saint Augustine, Northeast Florida
Going public with archaeology for outreach, assistance to local governments, and service to the citizens and state of Florida. Visit our website at: http://flpublicarchaeology.org/nerc/
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ADVOCACY ALERT: Artifact Amnesty Survey

If you have not done so already, please take a few minutes to take the survey for the Artifact Amnesty Feasibility Study. It closes September 4th.

THE RESULTS WILL BE VERY IMPORTANT IN HOW THE STATE WILL PROCEED. The pro-Amnesty votes are unfortunately up, so please do whatever you can to raise awareness of this issue and have advocates who want protected protection for cultural resources found on state lands to remain protected!

To participate in the survey, click here: TAKE SURVEY

Our Executive Direction Dr. William Lees wrote a great post on the main FPAN blog on the many reasons advocates for archaeology and preservation should be opposed the notion of artifact amnesty for objects taken from already protected state lands.

You can read his blog by clicking here: ARTIFACT AMNESTY or by reading pasted sections below.
The Florida Legislature, in the 2015-2016 General Appropriations Act, has charged the Florida Division of Historical Resources (DHR) with the task of “preparing a study of the feasibility of implementing a one-time amnesty program of limited duration for persons who possess specimens, objects, or materials of historical or archaeological value found on land owned or controlled by the state or on land owned by a water authority” (http://dos.myflorida.com/historical/archaeology/artifact-amnesty-feasibility-study/). As part of their feasibility study, they are seeking public input via an on-line survey which asks five questions:
  1. Did you know that it is illegal to remove, without authorization, any specimens, objects or materials of historical or archaeological value from land owned or controlled by the state or on land owned by a water authority?
  2. Do you think it should be illegal to remove, without authorization, any specimens, objects or materials of historical or archaeological value from land owned or controlled by the state or on land owned by a water authority?
  3. Do you support the implementation of a one-time amnesty program of limited duration for persons who possess specimens, objects or materials of historical or archaeological value collected from land owned or controlled by the state or on land owned by a water authority?
  4. If you were in possession of any specimens, objects or material of historical or archaeological value from land owned or controlled by the state or on land owned by a water authority, would you return them during an amnesty program?
  5. Do you think other people would participate in an amnesty program?
  6. Please list the positive and/or negative impacts you feel that an amnesty program could potentially have on the stakeholders and historic resources of the state.
From the outset it is important to understand that this is a feasibility study for a proposal that is at best only vaguely defined. From the survey questions, it is possible to presume that a requirement of this program would be that in order to receive amnesty any illegally acquired items would be turned over to the state, but this is an assumption. Even if artifacts are turned over, how about information on the location of the find and other details that would help to establish as much about the original context as possible?

In general, we do not see how a proposal for Artifact Amnesty will help the preservation of archaeological sites that exist on land owned by the State of Florida for the public benefit. We do not believe it will do anything to improve the protection of archaeological sites in Florida.

In opposing artifact amnesty for public lands and waters, we refer to, and express our support for the appropriateness and wisdom of the legislative intent expressed in Florida Statutes 267.14, “It is hereby declared to be the public policy of the state to preserve archaeological sites and objects of antiquity for the public benefit and to limit exploration, excavation, and collection of such matters to qualified persons and educational institutions possessing the requisite skills and purpose to add to the general store of knowledge concerning history, archaeology, and anthropology.” While this intent refers to all of Florida, it is particularly important for our public lands and waters which protect for the future what is uniquely Florida in terms of our natural environment as well as the remains of our diverse and unique heritage.

Our public lands and waters help us to ensure that the animals and plants, forests and wetlands, and springs and waterways that have always been a part of Florida will still exist and be accessible to the public for countless generations to come. Imbedded and submerged on these same lands are the remains of those who have come before. These remains are not just individual curiosities, they are complex archaeological sites where people lived, where they are buried, and where they have made their livings hundreds and thousands of years ago. Current law appropriately supports the public ownership of archaeological sites on public lands and waters and appropriately recognizes the value of their preservation for future scientific study by appropriately trained professionals.

Preservation of archaeological sites on public lands is all the more critical because of the rapid development of the State’s privately-held lands. Over the last several decades, development of our coastlines for residences, hotels, and businesses, and construction of highways, airports, and other needed infrastructure, has resulted in the wholesale destruction and loss of many thousands of archaeological sites, often without any record or study.

In opposing creation of an artifact amnesty program, which we presume would be accompanied by forfeiture of illegally obtained Florida artifacts and disclosure of their find locations, we believe such a program would:
  • Send a message that the Legislature does not take seriously its commitment to preservation of our publicly-owned lands and waters and the archaeological sites contained therein.
  • Not be taken seriously by many, including those who have systematically looted sites on public lands and waters.
  • Not prevent future collecting or looting of archaeological sites on public lands or waters.
  • Confuse rather than clarify the public understanding of law and regulation that protect archaeological sites and materials in Florida.
  • Provide rationale for calls to reinstate the failed Isolated Finds Program, which we also oppose (see http://www.flpublicarchaeology.org/blog/?p=49).
Florida has always been a leader in state-level historic and archaeological preservation and its current policies are consistent with an international recognition of the importance of preserving the archaeological remains of our cultural heritage for the future public benefit. Regardless of how it might be constructed, we believe any artifact amnesty program would represent a retreat from this position of leadership.

If we forgive those who obtained artifacts illegally from public lands and waters in Florida, we fear that this will set the stage for a push to just make it legal to collect on these lands through a program such as the former Isolated Finds Program, or the recently proposed Citizen Archaeology Permit which we believe is also a bad idea for Florida’s irreplaceable archaeological heritage (see Della Scott-Ireton’s blog on CAP).

We encourage anyone who has interest in the proposal to establish an Artifact Amnesty Program in Florida to provide DHR with your input through response to their on-line surveywhich closes September 4, or through a letter or call to Division Director Rob Bendus, R.A. Gray Building, 500 S. Bronough Street, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0250, Phone: 850.245.6300., or via email to Feasibility@dos.myflorida.com.

William B. Lees, PhD, RPA
Executive Director
Florida Public Archaeology Network

Text: Sarah Miller with cited inserts to FPAN blog post by William Lees.

Norwegian Public Archaeology

This summer I had the opportunity to see one of the world's best known examples of Public Archaeology: The Oseberg ship.  This 1,200 year old Viking Ship is one of Norway's national archaeological treasures, a direct link to their past, and currently one of the most visited tourist sites in the country.  And we can all thank a local Norwegian farmer for it's current existence. Housed at the Viking Museum in Oslo, Norway, The Oseberg burial ship dates back to 834 AD with parts of the ship dating back to 800 AD and the ship itself thought to be even older.  The ship is astonishingly well preserved. It is richly decorated and more than 90% of the fully reconstructed Oseberg ship consists of its original timber.

Built almost entirely of oak it measures 70.5 feet long, 17 feet wide, and 4.9 feet deep from railing to keel and researchers estimate it could achieve a speed of up to 10 knots (11.5 MPH).  There are 15 oar holes on each side, so fully-manned the ship would have had 30 oarsman, but is believed could have held up to 70  people.  


Two women were buried with the ship, whose identities remain a mystery. One woman was 60-70 years old upon death and the other 25-30.  Of course there have been many theories as to their identities; One being the older woman was a viking queen or noblewoman and the younger woman her slave.  Others believe they were both female shaman.  Regardless, it is clear from the richly decorated ship and elaborate burial that at least one of these women was highly revered.  One of the outfits even included silk imported from the distant land of China.

Viking textiles from the ship: woven fabric, tapestries, embroideries and bands
(Photo by Oslo Museum of Cultural History)

In addition to the imported silk, woolen garments and tapestries (and textile equipment) were also included in the burial, making the Oseberg burial one of the few sources of Viking age textiles. The burial chamber was dug right behind the ship's mast and the women lay on raised beds.  Included with them was everything a person of importance would need for a long journey: clothes, combs, animals, weapons, tents, wagons, carts, furniture, and of course, elaborately carved animal heads. Precious metals were also believed to have been included at the time, but were looted not long after the ship was buried.

carved animal head found in burial
The only complete Viking age cart found to date
 Norwegian archaeologist Haakon Shetelig and Swedish archaeologist Gabril Gustafson excavated the site in 1904-1905.  The excavation itself took less than 3 months, but it took 21 years to prepare and restore the ship and most of its finds!
Excavation of Oseberg Ship in 1904 (Photo: Oslo Museum of Cultural History)
The discovery was not made by an archaeologist, but by a farmer.   Knut Rom from the Lille Oseberg farm dug into the large burial mound on his property.  On August 8, 1903 the farmer visited Gustafson at The University's Collection of National Antiquities in Oslo and informed the professor of his discovery.  Two days later, Gustafson was on the mound and began his investigation.  Without the care and efforts of this farmer, this archaeological treasure could have been lost to the world forever.  That is Public Archaeology at it's best!

Text and Photos (except where noted) by FPAN Staff, Robbie Boggs

a good find in the Viking Museum gift shop

Current Laws For Drone Use in the U.S.

A Background And Basic Overview of Drone Laws

The FAA is currently working to refine drone use regulations.

In a previous post we introduced you to the newest FPAN team member in our super-region, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle named Boas 1. The last few years have seen a steady growth in the UAV market and interest by the general public has perhaps never been higher. Drone sales for recreational use by the general public are projected to increase steadily over the next several years meaning that drones, their regular use in public, and issues of drone use are more than likely here to stay. 
Buying stock in UAV tech companies might be a good idea.

Of course with any new advancement in technology that is unleashed on the general public we quickly see both the great potential and the technology as well as the various ways it can be misused, misconstrued, and just plain misunderstood. 
These are people that have the right to vote and say things.

A good example of this situation was the introduction of Google Glass in 2013. Google Glass was at the cusp of the current and growing trend of wearable technology; allowing the wearer to do things like read email, use the internet, experience augmented reality displays, and take photos. By 2015 Google had decided to stop producing the Glass prototype due in part to privacy and security concerns; users could collect data or pics surreptitiously and some groups saw this as a threat to personal privacy. Users of Google Glass became the butt of jokes in the media and were even given their own derogatory moniker: Glassholes.
Friends don't let friends be glassholes.

As with Google Glass, UAVs are at the center of quite a bit of debate about their use and regulation, certainly privacy concerns comprise a good portion of that debate as well. While many organizations (such as the groups utilizing UAVs for archaeological research discussed in the last post) laud the capabilities of drone use in research, and more and more people are using them for fun photography or video production, a few cases have highlighted the potential issues with the growing trend of drone use in the U.S. In May of 2015, a man was arrested for attempting to fly a drone over the White House. In April of this year the first recorded case of drone vandalism was noted on a Calvin Klein billboard in New York City. This year a number of incidents have involved the flight of drones too close to airports, causing concern over the safety and well-being of commercial aircraft. 
Graffiti artist Katsu makes this ad in NYC worth looking at.

The use of drones has certainly outpaced the ability of the Federal Aviation Authority to create a set of regulations to handle the myriad ways that drones can be used and misused. Some argue that this slow response is to blame for the misuse of drones in by the public; the argument that if regulation was in place before the growth of drone use, there would be training and certification programs in place to better educate the public about the use of UAVs. Regardless, the FAA has a set of rules in place and are actively working on creating more substantial regulations to deal with the growth of the drone industry. 

Currently there are three categories for drone use in the U.S. as dictated by the FAA: Public Operations (Governmental), Civil Operations (Non-Governmental), and Model Aircraft use. Most of the drones being used in the U.S. currently by the public would fall into the category of Model Aircraft (Hobby and Recreation). 

Public Operations use is largely self explanatory and not something most drone enthusiasts will be dealing with. Increasingly drones are seen by some private companies as a new, innovative way to record information or conduct surveillance. Drones are being used to inspect construction, in agriculture, for gathering film or television footage, etc. For any purposes where using a drone is done as part of a business operation, the Civil Operations category applies. Within this category the FAA provides the option to apply for a Section 333 exemption or a Special Airworthiness Certificate for the use of UAVs which allows the use of a drone under certain circumstances to be used by these entities. 

The Model Aircraft category is the section under which FPAN operates Boas 1. Drone users operating drones under the parameters of this category do not require special training or certification, but must comply with a few specific rules (see infographic below). As FPAN's focus is outreach and education about archaeological sites, Boas 1 helps us to bring this new technology to the public to discuss its uses in the field of archaeology. 
Very simple, easy to follow rules. Do it!

For all categories there are certain places you simply cannot use a drone: Within 5 miles of an airport (for most cases), in National Parks, and within the limits of the District of Columbia. 
These signs are not science fiction. You are living in the FUTURE!

Broadly, these are the regulations in place at the current time for the use of drones by the public in the U.S. Recent talks between the FAA, UAV technology companies, and with input from the public, have taken place with the goal of better defining the regulations in place concerning drones. More than likely as cost decreases and availability and capability increase, the regulations will need to be changed yet again. Overall, the regulations in place for the public use of drones by the FAA are liberal and understanding of the public's fascination with this new technology while also acknowledging the great potential of drones as tools in many different areas of the private sector. The rules provided are broad and there are certainly gray areas. It is up to each drone user to think critically about their use of a drone, to be concerned with safety of those around them, and to represent the UAV community well wherever they may be. In short, don't be a Dronehole.

Text: Kevin Gidusko
Pics (in order):


Heritage Trails across Florida

Did you know there are 9 heritage trails marking great spots to visit across the state? As you're squeezing in one last road trip for the summer, check them out! There's something for everyone, from Native American heritage to World War II, Spanish colonial shipwrecks to Women's history.

Each booklet also includes a map of the site locations and a short description about each site with contact information.

The best part about these trail maps? They're FREE! You can check out the online versions at the Hertiage Trails website, find them at select information centers and venues around the state, or contact your local FPAN office to get one for yourself!

The trail maps include: Black, Civil War, Cuban, French, Jewish, Native American, Spanish Colonial, Women and World War II Heritage. Also available are trails to underwater sites: the 1733 Spanish Galleon, Florida Panhandle Shipwreck, Historic Golf and Underwater Preserve Trails. We've also heard rumor of a Seminole War Trail in the making!

Text and photos by: Emily Jane Murray, FPAN staff

CRPTC 2.0: The Quest Continues

We made the marquee! (Photo: Marnie Sears Bench)
Last month FPAN facilitated the second annual Cemetery Resource Protection Training Conference (CRPTC) at the Volusia County Historic Courthouse in DeLand, Florida. The conference again drew 40 participants to learn more about cemeteries as cultural resources, learn best practices in cemetery management and care, and help keep these endangered sites standing for another 100 years.

We kicked off the morning with a welcome and introduction to vernacular headstones. Florida is full of homemade headstones, mostly of cement, and they are a little understood class of artifacts in terms of preservation and conservation. We didn't have time to view this video, but check it out at the bottom of this post.

Collage of vernacular headstones brought by participants to stir conversation.

This year we tried something new by offering two tracks. Track A for beginners led participants through a standards morning CRPT session with presentations on managing historic cemeteries, laws that protect human burial sites in Florida, how to list a site on the Florida Master Site File (FMSF), and research options such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) to learn more about site formation and layout.

Track B for returning CRPT graduates enjoyed presentations by FPAN staff presented recent cases from cadaver dogs used to find site boundaries, African-American burial practices, preserving frontier cemeteries, and an advanced session on FMSF form and updates on a new cemetery recording initiative from the Division of Historical Resources.

Both tracks met up in the afternoon for a series of presentations by FPAN staff with highlights from cemetery studies in their regions. We intended to end the session with a demonstration of how to make a vernacular headstone, but the weather had other ideas. Instead, Nigel Rudolph walked the group through what he would do later to make a headstone in his back yard.

Thanks to all the presenters: Molly Thomas, Sarah Nohe, Ryan Harke, Melissa Timo, Karen Kirkman, Shelby Bender, Jeff Moates, Kevin Gidusko, Barbara Clark, Nigel Rudolph, Emily Palmer, Mark Frank, Teresa Frank, Donald Price, Thomas Prentice, Jennifer Mack, Greg Hendryx, Melissa Dye and special thanks to Becky O'Sullivan, Brittany Yabczanka, Rachael Kangas, Emily Jane Murray, Julie Scofield, and Robbie Boggs. 

Nigel kept to his promise (along with Spivy his four-legged side kick) and posted this to YouTube (click here if video does not appear in your browser). He also wrote a great post on concrete headstones on the FPAN Central blog (read it here).

Keynote by Ranger Emily Palmer. 

But the day was far from over. After a short break we walked down the street to the historic Athens Theater for awards presentation, reception, and keynote titled "The Witness Tree: Civic Engagement and the Discovery of a Slave Graveyard" delivered by Ranger Emily Palmer. The topic of her presentation was the multlayered approach the National Park Service used to announce the discovery of a slave graveyard by Dr. James Davidson with the University of Florida's summer field school at Kingsley Plantation.

We returned to the courthouse on the second day for another round of talks. Different from previous years, this year we featured several cemetery projects undertaken by consulting firms in Florida. Prentice Thomas and Jennifer Mack of Prentice Thomas and Associates presented a great paper on the local DeLand hospital project that so many of our participants had asked about over the last year. Unlike FPAN, consultants are not necessarily paid to present their findings to the public. We were honored to have them come and will continue to gush our gratitude that they were willing to travel and present their findings to our group. We are also very grateful for Greg Hendryx and Melissa Dye of SEARCH, Inc.

Our favorite sexton, Mr. June himself, Don Price of Greenwood Cemetery, Orlando delights and instructs answering FAQs.

There's not room to describe all the outdoor afternoon stations, but see images from that day that help capture in some small way all the activities taking place at one time out at Oakdale Cemetery in DeLand. Honestly, I was separated from my camera that day and am so grateful to the CRPT Alliance community for all their posts on FB!

Morning welcome to Oakdale by Mr. Harlan DeLand himself. (Image credit: Kimberly Anne)

Resetting (image credit: Teresa Frank)
Cleaning with water and D2. (Image credit: Teresa Frank).
GPR, Volusia Resource Table, and hands-on resetting and cleaning. Photo credit: Emily Jane Murray.

Coffee and cemeteries hand in hand. (Photo credit: Marnie Sears Branch)

CRPTc 2 T-shirt design by Becky O'Sullivan. Record a cemetery for the FMSF and we'll send you one too!

For more information about CRPT check out our website, join the CRPT Alliance on Facebook, or email us for more information. Or feel free to jam the CRPT Course Rockin'n Tunes playlist on Spotify while you browse the @FPANlive feed of the conference (#CRPT)!

And don't miss this great "Made from my own hand" NCPTT posted video on vernacular headstone preservation! If video doesn't appear in browser check here.

Text: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff
Images: FPAN staff or otherwise credited in text

Monday Morning Book Review: Submerged: Adventures of America's Most Elite Underwater Archaeology Dive Team

For the second summer the Northeast Regional Center has hosted a summer book club series that meets once a month at our own Markland Cottage. It's been a lot of fun with readers getting into it by dressing up, bringing festive food or beverages that go with the theme, or incredibly by reading the books! Last summer we read Tatham Mound, Killing Mr. Watson, and A Voyage Long and Strange also featured as a Monday Morning Book Review (read here).

While last year was a line up of mostly fiction, this year the non-fiction muse paid a visit with books including 1491, Submerged (this week), and the yet to come Lives in Ruins next month.

Archaeology Book Club Fliers from Summer 2014 and 2015. 

SEASS Diver (www.fpan.us)
Submerged is a book I heard about while learning to dive and working with the Pedro Menendez High School Maritime Archaeology class years ago. I got the book as a gift, gave the Florida sections a quick read, and put it on my pile of archaeology books to take a closer look at during down time.

Turns out there never is a downtime for public archaeologists. There's always something we should be doing, promoting, gearing up for. And this month I'm gearing up for my swim test at UWF under the supervision of our Dive Safety Officer so I'm cleared and ready to go for next month's SEASS workshop at Key Biscayne. What a perfect time to revisit Submerged, be inspired by the daring feats of those who make the waters safer for us to visit, and brush up on my underwater archaeology history.

Submerged is written by Daniel Lenihan who we first meet as an avid cave diver in the beginning, then veteran of the National Park Services dive team who help start the Submerged Cultural Resources Unit. True to the reviews on the cover ("A gripping saga of archaeological exploration." says Clive Cussler), it is a fast paced, thrilling read that takes you surprising places around the globe including Florida, the Great Lakes, Micronesia, France, Pearl Harbor, the Aleutians, and Mexico just to name a few.

I liked how the book places underwater archaeology within the context of the 1970s as it was gaining recognition as a science, developing guidelines and protocols for safety and practice, and emerging from it's previous placement as a step-child of anthropology in the 80s. I also liked how Lenihan frames shipwrecks as places of necessary caution. Submerged sites by their definition are dangerous, illustrated by the passage: Archaeologists seldom get to pick where they will dive but almost by definition the area won't be benign...If this lake were a forgiving place, we wouldn't be here (p.5). It's true, when you dive for work rather than for recreation there is a different feel to getting in the water. Shipwrecks are sites of trauma and some are in fact memorials. Underwater archaeology is not to be taken lightly and not without figuring out the obstacles and circumstances that brought the ship below your ship or platform down.

Parts of the book remain timeless. When I read the following, "Even organizations I respected in the past, such as National Geographic, were celebrating the destruction of this aspect of the nation's resource base while they waxed sanctimoniously on natural resource protection (p.47)," it brought me right up to present day and the ongoing issue of the National Geographic Channel's archaeology based reality show Diggers. Even today I received an email from the Society for American Archaeology's President Diane Gifford-Gonzalez who provided an update on their ongoing consultation with NGC on Diggers, as did the Society for Historical Archaeology on their blog posts by President Charles Ewen (They're Back, and previously Diggers Making Progress, and Is Diggers Better?).  National Geographic is a visual and scientific institution that for the most part holds the public's trust. But National Geographic and their affiliate programs love affair with treasure is historic and ongoing. They wouldn't celebrate ivory poachers on their cover now would they. No way. Environmental resources are to be studied and conserved, for cultural resources the pendulum swings.

I loved Lenihan's recalling Mark Twain's words from Tom Sawyer, "There comes a time in every rightly constructed boy's [eta: or girl's] life when he [/she] has a raging desire to go somewhere and dig for hidden treasures (as quoted on p. 12 by Lenihan)." National Geographic, other media outlets, and in fact archaeologists rely on this strong, emotional connection humans feel to the ground and the objects in it. It seems too much to dream that the quote should end with "has a raging desire to go somewhere and systematically excavate for objects made and used by people."

Shipwrecks are special, and the public feels some shipwrecks are more special than others. They do evoke a different response from people than say terrestrial sites do. To this Lenihan had this to say:

The lesson was shipwrecks hold a special place in the heart of the public, and Civil War shipwrecks are the most compelling than even gold or silver....There was a natural sex appear to what we were doing that, if packaged right, could generate support and dollars for our program (p. 59).

First, I think this is true especially for public archaeologists. We rely on that natural sex appeal and try and get the information packaged right, sometimes with more success than others. Support, funding, and I would add a sincere preservation and stewardship goal to the outcomes we hope to gain from the packaging. Second, this section also reminded me of when Chris Amer, Deputy State Archaeologist for Underwater Archaeologist in South Carolina, came as keynote for the Maritime Archaeology Symposium. His lecture was titled, "A Survey for the 1526 Wreck of Lucas Vazquez De Allyon's Capitana." During that lecture he compared the public interested between Spanish Galleons and Civil War ships (I presume a Confederate wreck mentioned here) and shared similar frustrations with a public fervor over raising Civil War shipwrecks over the study of sixteenth-century Spanish shipwrecks. This doesn't feel true in Florida as I weigh public interest in the Maple Leaf over say the Emanuel Point wrecks, but it's in the back of my mind when talking to the public about underwater archaeology.

EP 1 Locastro Painting (ECL article)

Maple Leaf site plan from http://www.mapleleafshipwreck.com/

Which Wreck Wore Sexy Best: Spanish Colonial or Civil War 

I do have a criticism of the book. The book is heavy on adventure and diving, but light on the archaeology. The SCRU team dives some unbelievably historic and significant wrecks. You learn a little about them as they are there to map and record. Beyond the mapping, the archaeology is nearly non-existent. Reading this book won't make you more versed in parts of a ship, or what general artifacts illustrate different kinds of behavior of people before the ship wrecked. He touches on this in the "Contemplation vs. Action" chapter where the case is made for an increase in the social science component of underwater archaeology. The Shipwreck Anthropology symposium happens and ultimately the book with the same title is published, but these kinds of interpretations are not made as a result in the book. The style returns to the pre-chapter 13 pace of adventure, close call, new safety protocol for diving or personal anecdote, then on to the next dot on the map.

Sarah at Ginnie Springs, location featured in the book.
In defense of Lenihan, he has packaged his strong preservation message into a book that naturally appeals to a non-academic community. If this book's target audience is sport divers, then what a great way to start a conversation about why you leave a point in the place you found it, or why not blow out the bottom of the sea floor in looking for gold coins that are not likely there. Case in point, several of our book club readers had difficulty finding the book as it was in the Sports section and not History or Archaeology. Just when I'm ready to write off the book as being for sport divers, I remember the great context presented at the beginning for the start of the National Park Service dive team, reservoir project, and historic wrecks that brings me back to professional/amateur equilibrium.

He also doesn't state that he made a career out of doing research. Late in the book he says he "made a career out of assessing risks to doing research (p.202)." The more I thought back to each section in the book the more I believed Lenihan's contribution was as park ranger, making the sites safe for people to visit, making sure they have a bit of knowledge about what they're going to dive on, and making sure all the divers that go down come up again to share their story with others. The pride of diving at Isla Royale is not the research per se but installing the interpretation. As he says, "You don't be a good steward of a resource you don't understand." Personally, Submerged help me understand underwater resources more as a whole and appreciation of what's come before me in the long line of scientific divers. And for that, I'm grateful, and I hope to be a better steward for underwater resources.

One more thing I want readers to know. I was delighted to read names familiar to me from attending Society for Historical Archaeology's annual conference: Pilar Luna, James Delgado, and George Fischer to name a few. These underwater archaeology heroes are still hard at work, accessible to normal people like you and me, and are today interpreting and writing about underwater archaeology for the public.

If you're interested in other underwater archaeology books, I have these to recommend, albeit more on the academic, non-fiction side:

 And for kids, read our previously posted Monday Morning Book Reviews for Shipwreck, Hurricane Dancer, and Derek the Dredger posts.

And if you're interested in joining us next month as we discus Lives in Ruins, we will meet at the FPAN Center, Markland Cottage on Flagler College campus. The book club meeting is free and open to the public Tuesday August 11th from 5-6 pm. For directions or further questions, contact us here.

Text: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff except excerpts from the book in purple.
Images: Book Covers via Amazon, National Geographic cover from treasurenet.com, SEASS diver from fpan.us, and shipwreck images credited in the captions. Sarah at Ginnie provided by Sarah Miller, FPAN staff.

Lenihan, Daniel
2002  Submerged: Adventures of America's Most Elite Underwater Archaeology Dive Team. Newmarket Press, New York.

Understanding Impacts of Climate Change on Cultural Resources

Effects of storm surge on Florida historic cemeteries (Image courtesy of  Ed Gonzalez-Tennant)

Last month several archaeologists, historians, preservationists, and scientists gathered near the Matanzas Inlet for our inaugural Sea Level Rise workshop. To say it was the Northeast Regional Center’s initial foray into SLR is not quite true. We’ve already participated in a Sea Level Rise panel as part of Florida Trust for Historic Preservation's 2013 annual conference and the Society for Historical Archaeology’s “Have We Missed the Boat” 2015 panel in Seattle. The North Central FPAN Center also recently held a workshop in Apalachicola for a citizen planning committee to discuss Sea Level Rise. And the GTM-NERR has conducted nationally recognized Planning Matanzas public meetings across the Matanzas Basin. But this workshop was something different.

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise are for some politically charged words, but for archaeologists it’s already a reality. We’ve noticed and have taken part on digs both coastal and inland where we can see environmental impacts to archaeological sites. And the change is nothing new. Archaeologists have an unique perspective as we’ve seen Florida change dramatically over the 12-15,000 years of human occupation of the state. Geologists reaching back millions of years have documented the dynamic ebb and flow of the coastline and the land’s reaction to extreme environmental changes.

What’s new is we want to provide the public with resources so they can make future informed decisions regarding cultural resources and give them hands-on experience recording threatened sites. There are many choices we will have to make for ourselves, for our communities, and for our shared heritage and we want to be ready. We want YOU to be ready. Ready to make informed decisions about how to spend funds on planning documents, on solutions, on stop-gap measures, and help identify sites to be identified and studied before they are inundated or impacted by storm surge.

The workshop began with a welcome by Tina Gordon from the GTM-NERR welcoming us at the Education Center. It made sense to us to have our first SLR workshop at Matanazas Inlet in Flagler County, ground zero in some respects to changes predicted in NOAA SLR and Coastal Flooding modeling tools. We then presented an overview of the environmental history of Florida to show how sites have been impacted by environmental change over thousands of years and different ways past cultures have adapted. We heard from Fernandina Beach planner Adrienne Burke who is concerned from a preservation perspective what will happen to her community and wanting to know the full suite of best practices already installed by other cities, states, and nations. We presented different options heritage sites can consider and looked closer at how rising sea levels directly impact archaeological sites and artifacts.

Before breaking for the afternoon fieldtrip Tina Gordon walked us through the Planning Matanzas program and led a SLR adaptation role-playing game developed by the University of Florida during the public workshop portion of the Planning Matanzas program to look at cost, affordances, and constraints of many of the tools available to local commissions and boards. Sea Level Rise adaptation plans could include actions such as temporary beach renourishment, living shorelines, hardscaping with seawall construction, elevating structures, habitat migration corridors, ecosystem conservation, and planned relocation. Workshop participants are assigned roles ranging from local resident to government official, ecotourism business owner, inland developer and environmental scientist, each with a varying degree of funding and SLR adaptation strategy.

Deliberation is the goal of all our education efforts. If people can discuss, argue, disagree, cite different examples, and make their case for their strategy, then our job is done. I don’t know how to solve SLR, and I’m sure each community in the regions I serve will take a slightly different approach across the adaptation continuum, but it’s important to know what the options are and be aware of their short and long term effects.

In the afternoon we took the workshop on the road. First stop, we tried to relocate a sensitive coastal archaeological site.

See it?

Of course you don’t! Most sites are in great need of being recorded or updated on the Florida Master Site File. This site happened to be under tens of feet of sand covering it up and is only in view during a low tide after a storm surge. Being aware of sites to monitor long term impacts is essential. Relocating to verify the location is just as important. The accuracy of reporting tools has increased dramatically in the decades since many sites were initially discovered. In terms of planning, the best plan in the world won’t help a site or resource if it’s not mapped accurately and verified.

Our second site visit was to Washington Oaks State Park. We toured the site to see changes since the initial 1980s reporting by Bruce Piatek. There are standing structures that will be impacted by SLR, a prehistoric site—noted in the 80s to be in danger due to rising elevations and wake from boater—that continues to erode out from the side of the seawall constructed to protect it, and the gardens themselves which will change as sea level and salinity increase over time.

What’s next? I’ve never faced an archaeological issue that has generated this much written material over such a short amount of time. There is a lot of information, best practices, and guidelines being issued every day that we keep adding to a shared DropBox folder to stay current. It takes a lot of reading to be aware of all the recently available resources. So first, to the books! If you’d like to help FPAN with this part of SLR awareness, we need help with an existing list of SLR related resources to get an annotated bibliography we can post and update as more resources become available. Contact me if you are interested in reading articles and writing a short paragraph to help us navigate through all the literature.

We also hope to offer more SLR workshops across the region and the state over the next year. FPAN staff from across the state attended this workshop with hopes of bringing back resources and adapting the agenda for their region’s needs. If you are interested in a SLR workshop in your area, check the www.fpan.us website to find your local FPAN office and contact page with emails to request a workshop. We’re also looking for sites in the Northeast and East Central regions where we can conduct the morning information session, free and open to the public. If you have ideas, let us know by emailing us or leave a comment in the section below.

Look for updates on our website and join the EnvArch group on Facebook to learn more.

Text: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff

Images: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff and Storm Surge Cemetery graphic used with permission by Ed Gonzalez-Tennant.

Thanks to Tina Gordon (GTM-NERR), Adrienne Burke (City of Fernandina Beach), FPAN staff Kevin Gidusko and Emily Jane Murray for presenting; Associate Director Della Scott-Ireton, Northwest/North Central Director Barbara Clark, and Public Archaeology Coordinator Nicole Grinan for attending; Florida State Parks for allowing our education workshop to visit Washington Oaks; professional archaeologists and preservationists across Florida and the US for contributing to our resource folder of articles, guidelines, and resources for public understanding of climate change and impacts to cultural resources.

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