Sunday, April 20, 2014

Lighthouses And Rocket Ships: A Unique CRPT Experience

On April 9th we were honored to hold a Cemetery Resource Protection and Training (CRPT) course on the property of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS).  Since 1949 this area has acted as the launching site for many of the first and most important manned space flights for the United States.

After WWII there was a need to develop missile technology to compete in a quickening arms race with what
would soon become known as the Cold War with the USSR.  The Cape was chosen as an ideal spot for long-range missile testing due to its proximity to the equator and the vast amount of space to, well, launch missiles into.  Missile technology rapidly advanced (as did competition with the USSR) and the Cape became one of the centers dedicated to the achievement of manned space flight.  The CCAFS has seen the GeminiMercury and Apollo missions launch into orbit and beyond, all from just off of an unassuming stretch of road which would come to be affectionately called Missile Row.

So why were we conducting a CRPT course along Missile Row?  I'm glad you asked.  Before the missiles, before the giant gantries, before the looming rockets with brave men strapped atop them, before all of this there was a lighthouse.  To be fair, before all of that there was a Big Bang, a few billion years, eons of geological change, millennia of humans descended from the first people to traverse into the Americas that called that land home, and a few other things thrown in there as well that happened.  But for now we'll focus in on the lighthouse.

The Cape Canaveral Lighthouse stands today about a mile and a half inland from where it originally stood closer to the coast and is operated as a museum which you can and should visit. The original brick structure was built in the early 19th century and stood 65 feet tall.  It was later increased to nearly 90 feet.  It was moved to its current site and in 1853 Mills O. Burnham became the keeper.  He remained the keeper for the next 33 years.  Today the lighthouse is a short drive from any of the beautiful communities surrounding the base, but in the mid-19th century the lighthouse may as well have been on the moon as far as civilization was concerned.  The keeper had his family, the assistant keeper's family and a few other homesteaders in the area for company.  As it was, the tiny community had to handle for themselves many of the things we often don't deal with today.  One danger that was always around the corner in Florida before air conditioners, before consistent and good supplies of medicine, and before a concerted effort to kill off as many mosquitoes as possible was the ever-present shade of Death. These small, scattered communities often had either family grave plots or small communal plots set aside for burial.  Today there are several of these plots (and much more) that are maintained by the 45th Space Wing Cultural Resources Manager, Thomas E. Penders.  So when Tom invited us out to hold a CRPT course and help clean a cemetery associated with the lighthouse families we jumped at the chance.

For the classroom portion of the course we were allowed to utilize the renovated bunker house at Launch Complex 14.  As many of you know, this is where the Mercury missions first sent Americans into space.  Alan Shepard was the first to be launched into space and later John Glenn would launch from this site to be the first to orbit the Earth.  It was a remarkable facility and for lunch we sat by the ramp that led to the gantry and had a conversation standing on the blast pad.
LC-14 Bunker Today
LC-14 Bunker in operation

A short distance away we spent the afternoon in one of several historic cemeteries on the CCAFS property.  Participants learned about proper cemetery recording techniques as well as best practices for cleaning headstones.  With elbow grease and a lot of good will we were able to clean the entire cemetery before the end of the day.  This was a a victory made all the sweeter as the next week happened to be the day set aside for the descendants of those buried on the property to visit their ancestors.  We hoped they would enjoy seeing the headstones greeting them looking brighter than they have in probably half a century.
Before cleaning
After cleaning

A special thanks for all of those who attended this CRPT course.  A very special thanks to Thomas E. Penders for arranging the opportunity to utilize such a unique location for our class.
Thanks to all!

Text and Images: Kevin Gidusko
Map: Nasa


Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Ceramics 101: Slipwares

Day 3: Slipped Coarse Earthenware 

In ceramic terms a slip is liquid clay used to decorate over a previously fired earthenware.  Historically slips came in white, yellow, light and dark brown, and green.  A clear lead glazed coating was put on after firing the slip to give a smooth and shiny sheen.  Many of the patterns repeat across types, such slip trailing (defined line), combing (running a wide comb tool across lines or feathering with a brush), and marbled (joggling).  Toward the end of preparing this post I found this beautiful History of Slipware page featuring sherds from Port Royal, Jamaica, perfect for those wanting to know more about English decoration and vessel types. 

1. Wrotham and Metropolitan - 17th Century

Before Staffordshire types, these early slip wares featured darker, more rustic decorations.  Wrotham features a dark slip covered the entire vessel and another slip design was dropped on top in naturalistic designs.  Metropolitan are more ginger in color.  There's a nice description with pictures on the Jamestown Rediscovery webpage.  We didn't have any specimens at the library or in class, but I have seen a few sherds at the City archaeology lab and when I visit places like Boston.

Wrotham vessel with date inscribed from Allen Gallery in Alton, Hampshire, UK.

Metropolitan slipware from Museum of London collection.

2. Sgraffito

Sgraffito in general means to scratch into the slipped surface.  This decoration style is still used today but can be found on Florida historic sites as Polychrome in 16th c contexts possibly made in Spain, to a later British made Sgraffito, white slip over red paste that dates from 1650-1740.  We didn't have any examples in class or the library, so check out the FLMNH digital type collection links I pasted in above.

Italian sgraffito vessel replica featured as a WIIW years back.  Answer featured in a follow up blog post.

3. Pisan (1600-1650)

Another Italian type common in Spanish and English colonies is Pisan.  The paste is red and compact.  The surface is decorated with marbleized swirls of yellow, brown, and green.  A clear lead glaze is then added over the slip decoration for a glossy finish.  It reminds me of the pattern found on the inside covers of old books.  The decoration starts as straight lines of different color slips.  The artist gives a slight jiggle (called a joggle) to the vessel, and voila...swirls are born (see YouTube video below).
Mind the gap...formatting issues I can't seem to resolve....


As an archaeologist you are most likely to find this type, ubiquitous on 18th century Colonial sites.  While the FMNH has a nice page, the Maryland Type Collection page has the greatest detail.   Paste is yellowish or buff.  The slip can be white or brown and decorated in a variety of ways: slip trailing, "jeweling" by placing dots, combing, marbling (joggling), and impressed.  A lead glaze is then added over to give it a flat, shiny surface appearance.  Large plates are decorated on one side a feature a "piecrust" rim, however Staffordshire slips are found on a variety of vessel forms. 

Slip trailed, marbled (joggled) and marbled Staffordshire sherds.

Combed Staffordshire dish made today for tourists.

5. American or Moravian (1750-1825)
Slipped trailed red ware, coarse red paste, design just trialled over the top and lead glaze on top.  Not layered or swirled.  Unlike Staffordshire sherds, American or Moravian feature a thick red paste.  These were made in the second half of the 18th century.  Important for St. Augustine, this type indicates Second Spanish period deposits found above the British period layers featuring Staffordshire types.  The ginger colored vessels are not often glazed on the back.  Combinations of white, yellow, light or dark brown, and green could be trailed, marbled, banded, or washed over body.  Could also be slip trailed with animals, floral designs, dates and other inscriptions. 
Image of Moravian Sherd from Brenda Heindl's blog Liberty Stoneware.

6. Saintonage (1250 - 1650)

I'm a bit obsessed with Saintonge at the moment.  This type comes from southern France and is found in Europe and early French sites in the US.  I have seen 28 Saintonge vessels in my life, and all of them were on display in Quebec City.  Unfortunately no photos were allowed and we didn't have a specimen for class.  You can check out the FMNH listing, or I included some samples from the web below.  The slip is white, like a primer, and the green glaze is on top of the slip.  It is rare but possible to find in St. Augustine.  It is also found in Atlantic and Gulf states, Illinois, and Canada, most notably in Quebec. 

Image of Saintonge from Old Mobile Archaeology page.
Saintonge pitcher from Museum of London Ceramics and Glass Collection.

There are some AWESOME videos that show techniques for slipwares, here's just a few (note: on some browsers the thumbnails don't seem to appear so including hyperlink in titles just in case):

The Slipware Tour- almost an hour long but beautiful before and after images showing multiple forms and styles

Slipware plates- joggling and straight lines:

Irma Starr makes 17th Century English Slipware:

More general review of post-medival pottery in England by Time Team (3 minutes in nice review of Staffordshire industry)

Check back next time as the wild MAJOLICA adventure begins!

Other posts in the #ceramics101 series (will provide link as they are posted):
Week 1 - introduction
Week 2 - Unglazed and coarse earthenware: Part 1 Prehistoric; Part 2 Olive Jars; Part 3 European
Week 3 - Slipware and lead-glazed pottery
Week 4 - Majolica- Morisco tradition
Week 5 - Majolica- Italianate tradition
Week 6 - Majolica- Mexico City tradition
Week 7 - Majolica- Puebla tradition
Week 8 - Delft & Faience
Week 9 - Porcelain
Week 10 - Refined Earthenware
Week 11 - Stoneware

Text and images: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff using notes from Dr. Deagan's Fall 2012 Historic Ceramic Analysis class at Flagler College.  Please note any errors and inaccuracies are mine.  Endless thanks to Dr. Kathleen Deagan to giving her blessing to this blog project last year.  Images by Sarah Miller except where noted in the caption and full reference given below.


Florida Museum of Natural History, Digital Type Collection, Historical Archaeology (

Deagan, K. A. 2002 Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean 1500-1800.Volume 1: Ceramics and Glassware.  Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press (Volume 1). (paper). 

Jefferson Patterson Parks and Museum, Diagnostic Artifacts in Maryland, Colonial Ceramics webpage (

"Saintonge" Slipware.  St. Mary's University Anthropology page.

A Study of Colonial Ceramics.  The Center for Archaeological Studies' Old Mobile Archaeology website.  

Ceramics at the Allen Gallery. 

Metropolitan Slipware, Museum of London Ceramics and Glass Collection.

Metropolitan Slipware.  Jamestown Rediscover webpage: 

Heindl, Brenda.  Moravian slipware sherds featured on Liberty Stoneware blog: 

Donachie, Madeleine.  Slipware at Port Royal, Jamaica.  Texas A&M.

Monday, March 31, 2014

As We Bid Farewell to Florida Archaeology Month 2014

It has been an eventful and extremely busy Florida Archaeology Month 2014 here at the Northeast and East-Central  Regional FPAN centers! Given that today is March 31 and archaeology month is coming to a close,  : (    I figure it's a good time to highlight some of our accomplishments and share some of our outreach experiences!

We took on FAM2014 like the Paleoindians took on mammoths!
Archaeology month started with a bang. On March 1st, Ryan and intern Elizabeth led a public archaeology day dig in Clay County. The excavations focused on an area known as the "Historic Triangle" in between the County Courthouse and the old Jailhouse. We were searching for historic artifacts, or maybe even a garbage midden associated with the inmates and/or keepers.

Participants excavate a 1 m X 50 cm test trench
Meanwhile, Emily Jane spent the morning at the GTM Research Reserve in Ponte Vedra, leading an archaeology hike throughout the beautiful Guana Peninsula and discussing pottery, tools and other materials found at nearby sites.

Hikers got to learn about 6000+ years of human occupation on the Guana Peninsula!

Also that week, we made our first attempt at some archaeology Pecha Kuchas (20 slides X 20 minutes) in Fernandina Beach! We talked about archaeologist's fetishes including clothes, tools and beer.

The infamous manicures were Sarah's fetish during our first archaeology-themed Pecha Kucha series.

On March 7th,  we conducted an all-day public archaeology event at Burns Science and Technology Charter school, where we helped a class demonstrate four types of Timucuan Technology for the rest of their school.

Students gather and listen before heading to four archaeology stations

On March 8, we held our first Shells and Archaeology workshop at Ponce Inlet Marine Science Center! We talked about different types of native shells and identifying features, how people used them in the past, and how archaeologists study them today.

Participants drew how they thought Natives used shells in the past, and built their own shell middens! 

The following week, I partnered with Fort Mose State Park to lead multiple hikes out to the island location of Fort Mose II. We had great weather that day!

Ryan and park specialist Tonya stand where Fort Mose II once stood

Kevin and Emily Jane led a cookie excavation at Wekiwa Springs State park for a group of elementary school children while Sarah helped a local 4-H group clean up San Sebastian Cemetery in St. Augustine.

The students carefully excavate 'choco-facts' from their 'not-cookie-archaeological-sites.'
On March 22, Sarah led a cleanup crew out at San Sebastian Cemetery near St. Augustine. 
On the last Saturday of FAM 2014, Ryan and Elizabeth volunteered to help at Flagler College's high school visitation day by repping FPAN, local archaeology, and internship opportunities through Flagler's public history program!

That same day, Emily Jane and Kevin spent time at Brevard Museum of History and Natural Science doing all sorts of activities--atlatl dart throwing, native plants and archaeology toolkit presentations. They wrapped up with a PaleoFlorida talk by Kevin!

Emily Jane showing off her finely honed hunting skills.
Well, there you have it. Those are just some of the highlights from our region's FAM2014. We're happy to say that everyone survived (!),  and we look forward to a crazy FAM next year! Thanks to all of our collaborators, and all those who supported us throughout this public archaeology gauntlet!

Text and Images, Ryan Harke, Kevin Gidusko, Emily Jane Murray, and Sarah Miller.

Sunday, March 23, 2014

Wekiwa Springs State Park: A Springtastic Place to Visit for FAM 2014

Wekiwa Springs, early morning.  Photo by K. Gidusko

Step back in time at Wekiwa Springs

Florida Archaeology Month 2014 is in full swing and we've had the chance to visit many great places and spread the good word on Florida's deep archaeological past.  FAM 2014 is celebrating the archaeology of Florida's first people, the paleoindians, and highlighting two unique archaeological sites that have provided information on these people; Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral Springs.  Both of these sites are a little ways from our area, but did you know that we too have some stunning spring sites that you can visit thanks to the Florida State Parks system?

Wekiwa Springs State Park encompasses nearly 7,00 acres of rivers, wetlands, and pine uplands.  There is ample space for picnics and the constant 72-degree water (over 42 million gallons flow from the spring daily!) in the spring makes it a
nice, refreshing way to spend a free day this spring.  Over 13 miles of trails are available for hiking, horseback riding, or biking.  Rent or bring your own canoe or kayak to take a trip down the Wekiva river, a gently flowing river that's great for beginners or those of us who just want to take it slow.

People have utilized the river systems and spring sites of Eastern Florida for thousands of years.  The slow-moving, spring-fed rivers provided plenty of resources for the native peoples inhabiting the area.  Fish, turtles, alligators, shellfish., and plenty more enabled large populations to exist here from around the late-archaic period until the time of contact with Europeans. 

Florida was long one of the least populous states in the southern U.S.  However, after the Civil War the area attracted attention from tourists,especially from the North, who believed that the springs in Florida provided healing properties for an array of ailments.  The picture to the right shows Wekiwa Spring as it would have looked in the early part of the 20th century.  The surrounding forests were used for logging and a few turpentine camps operated in the area as well.

In 1941 the Wilson Cypress Company sold the land that surrounds Wekiwa Springs to the Apopka Hunt Club.  The Club used the land for hunting and fishing activities until the state purchased the land in 1969 and the next year opened the area as Wekiwa Springs State Park.  

We recently had the opportunity to assist in the Wekiwa E.C.O. Day (Environmental Curriculum Outreach) which brought a group of elementary students to the park and educated about the anatomy of a spring, pollution, pyrogenic landscapes and cultural resources of the area.  We had a chance to talk about the bio-technology the native peoples used to thrive in the area for thousands of years.  A lot of this information can be found in FPAN'sTimucuan Technology curriculum.  Be sure to check it out for tons of great information and fun activities you can try out at home.  We ended our talk with some chocolate chip cookie excavation to drive the point home that professional archaeologists work hard to preserve and investigate information on provenience at archaeological sites.  The kids learned how important it was to preserve these sites and how they can help to be good stewards of these resources.  

So this FAM 2014 get out and enjoy some of the great cultural resources that are in our backyards!  Take some time to appreciate the Florida of yesterday and learn how important it is that we all work together to preserve these precious sites for future generations.

Text and Pics: Kevin Gidusko
Historic Pics: Florida State Parks


Monday, March 10, 2014

Ceramics 101: Lead Glazed!

Day 3: Lead Glazed Coarse Earthenware 

The super shiny, glass-like coating you see on many ceramic types is lead glazing.  Potters shaped the vessel, fired it once, then fired it again after adding a powder of lead and silicates.  The powder would melt and bond to the vessel, not easily flicked off.  Lead glazing was quite an improvement- helped to hold water, make the decoration more expressive, and held up better over time.  Was the lead bad for public health?   Lead poisoning from ceramics is rare, but one study on lead glazed ceramics from Port Royal in Jamaica tested toxicity and found evidence the lead leached out and poisoned some of the population. 

Lead glazed ceramics tell a dynamic story of lands changing hands between the Spanish and the British.  Kinds of lead glazing you find around St. Augustine from 16th to 19th century wares include:

Green Bacin (1490-1600)

Cream to tan colored earthenwares with a distinctive emerald green glaze on the interior.  Green Bacin is found on late 16th century sites in Florida and on Spanish Armada shipwrecks.  It has not been found in Spanish Mission contexts or later shipwrecks.

Green Bacin, aka the big green giant!

El Morro  (1550-1700)

El morro, rough, sandy, shiny but rough.  Made in Spanish Americas, named after Castillo in Puerto Rico.  Unlike other lead glazed wears El Morro is rough, not finished very well.  Bits of sand stick up through glaze, very rough, sandpaper texture.  Very common in St. Augustine.  Did I mention it's rough?  

El Morro, very gritty surface.

Named at the same time as El Morro, Rey Ware has reddish paste, more compact than El Morro, less sandy.  Doesn't occur until 18th century.  The main characteristic is its smoothness- very, very smooth.  There is no proof Rey Ware is Spanish named, and on English sites it's called glazed earthenware.  Did I mention it's smooth?

Rey Ware with its high gloss finish.

A mouthful to say, this redware is soft, sandy, dark orange and friable. Reflective glaze found often on one side but sometimes on both sides of the vessel.  This type is found commonly on 16th century St. Augustine sites and other locations in the Caribbean and South America.  Can often be misidentified or crumbled beyond recognition. 

Crumbly bits of 16th Century Lead Glazed Redware.

Buckley (1650 to 1800s) 

Striated (mixed) pastes alternating red and yellow to make an almost purple paste with black shiny glaze.  Most common form was big storage jars with ribs or ridges.  Dates fluctuate depending on historical events (British occupation), so it's a good example of dates of use not strictly following production dates.  As a British made ware, rare to find in St. Augustine but indicative of British Period or as allowed in trade.

Rare find of British Buckley ware in St. Augustine.

Similar to Buckley this type has cream to terracotta colored paste with black glossy glaze, but unlike Buckley the paste color is consistent with no striations.  The glaze is thick, coal-black and shiny.  Spanish made, not British, and therefore more readily found in St. Augustine.

Jackfield (1740-1790)

Similar to Buckley with purple paste and black glaze, but paste more compact to the point of being a stoneware-like.  The black glaze is so glossy, appears to have an iridescent shine like an oil slick.  Also indicative of British Period (also see Jefpat listing for Jackfield).

Jackfield sherd, a British earthenware so dense it's often typed as a stoneware.

This British type does occur in St. Augustine and both Spanish and British colonies. The paste is not consistent- coarse grey paste is surrounded by a reddish color.  Doesn't have sand in the temper but there are pebbles in the paste.  The inside is lead glazed with an apple-green color.  Sherds are thick, indicative of large crocks and jugs. 

Check back next time for Slip decorated wares!

Other posts in the #ceramics101 series (will provide link as they are posted):
Week 1 - introduction
Week 2 - Unglazed and coarse earthenware: Part 1 Prehistoric; Part 2 Olive Jars; Part 3 European
Week 3 - Slip decorated and lead-glazed pottery
Week 4 - Majolica- Morisco tradition
Week 5 - Majolica- Italianate tradition
Week 6 - Majolica- Mexico City tradition
Week 7 - Majolica- Puebla tradition
Week 8 - Delft & Faience
Week 9 - Porcelain
Week 10 - Refined Earthenware
Week 11 - Stoneware

Text and images: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff using notes from Dr. Deagan's Fall 2012 Historic Ceramic Analysis class at Flagler College.  Please note any errors and inaccuracies are mine.  Endless thanks to Dr. Kathleen Deagan to giving her blessing to this blog project last year.  


Florida Museum of Natural History, Digital Type Collection, Historical Archaeology (

Deagan, K. A. 2002 Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean 1500-1800.Volume 1: Ceramics and Glassware.  Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press (Volume 1). (paper). 

Jefferson Patterson Parks and Museum, Diagnostic Artifacts in Maryland, Colonial Ceramics webpage (

Hailey, T. I. 1994.  The Analysis of 17th, 18th, and 19th- Century Ceramics from Port Royal, Jamaica for Lead Release: A Study in Archaeotoxology.  (

Friday, February 28, 2014

Whatchu know about Pecha Kucha?

What the heck is Pecha Kechu? Not familiar? 

Pecha Kucha began in Tokyo, Japan in 2003, and is now used in over 700 cities! 

Pecha Kucha is a powerpoint presentation (or similar) that is set to automatically advance slides every 20 seconds, with a limit of 20 slides. That is, you have 20 slides of 20 seconds each, totaling six minutes and 40 seconds for your presentation. They're often held in laid-back venues, such as coffee shops, restaurants, or bars. I believe the goal is obvious; Pechu Kucha is designed to keep presentations concise and informative. We all know of at least one speaker that cannot ever seem to wrap things up! The topics for Pecha Kucha are of course diverse, but they often tell a story, use lots of humor, and/or share a creative new idea. 

In lieu of Florida Archaeology Month (FAM) 2014, FPAN Northeast is compiling (and collaborating!) on a variety of exciting and educational outreach events all month long--See our FAM 2014 website calendar for a full list. 

One of which will be FPAN's first attempt at some archaeology-related Pechu Kucha presentations. Our Pecha Kucha night is scheduled for Tuesday, March 4th from 6-8pm at Cafe Karibou in Fernandina Beach. FPAN NE and East-Central staff decided on a playful theme, "Archaeology Fetishes," where we'll talk about those objects and ideas most dear to archaeologists. 

As a sneak peak, topics include: 

Majolica Manicures, by Sarah Miller 

Archaeology Attire, by Ryan Harke

Archaeologists Love for Beer by Emily Jane Murray


The Archaeologist's Trowel, by Kevin Gidusko

Hope to see you on Tuesday evening for some concise and funny archaeology-themed Pecha Kuchas, and that you're already out there thinking about hosting a Pecha Kucha night of your own! Until next time. 

Text and Images, Ryan Harke, Kevin Gidusko, Emily Jane Murray, and Sarah Miller. Full credit to for dog meme. Full Credit to Pecha Kuchatm  for use of their logo. 

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Meet our FPAN intern from Flagler College, Elizabeth Valnoha

Hello, my name is Elizabeth Valnoha. I'm a senior history major at Flagler College here St. Augustine, with a double-minor in anthropology and public history. Similar to many other kids of my generation, I wanted to be an archaeologist and go on exciting and dangerous adventures like Indiana Jones and other big screen archaeologists.  My passion for history and archaeology began when I was very young, shortly after my uncle returned from a yearlong stay in Egypt. He shared many exciting stories from his travels; I quickly knew that I wanted to study Ancient Egyptian history and discover mummies! As a 12-year-old in the eighth grade, I was one of the few who wanted to be an archaeologist or Egyptologist. Over the years, my interest in archaeology was refined into a love for history and historical archaeology. Now, I'm in my final year at Flagler and my dreams of working in the field seem to be getting closer every day! 

On a local farmer's property, Bolas, Costa Rica
One of the mysterious "stone spheres" on the farmer's property
 Through my internship with FPAN, I'm learning to actively engage with the public concerning Florida's buried past, and I hope to continually learn from these interactive experiences. I enjoy teaching children, and showing them how learning about archaeology can be fun and exciting! I hope to use the experience I gain from FPAN and apply it to create future opportunities within the fields of museum studies and/or historical archaeology. In the future, I'd like to continue working with the public; I want to help convey the importance and relevance of  local Florida archaeology and history. 

During my time at Flagler College, I've experienced St. Augustine archaeology and history through Flagler's archaeology club, which celebrates the city's rich cultural heritage with themed events. Currently, I am the club president, and continually strive to share my enthusiasm for history and archaeology with the other members. In addition, I recently attended an archaeology field school in Costa Rica with Flagler archaeology professor, Dr. Bill Locascio. The research and excavations are part of the Southern Costa Rica Archaeology Project (SCRAP), which also involves faculty and students from College of Lake County (CLC) in Chicago. This educational experience made me appreciate both the physical labor of archaeology in the field, and also the detailed artifact processing that occurs in the lab. 

Text and Images, Elizabeth Valnoha and Ryan Harke, FPAN Staff.